skip to main content skip to footer

Short-Term Instruction, Testwiseness, and the Scholastic Aptitude Test: A Literature Review With Research Recommendations SAT

Pike, Lewis W.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
College Board, Aptitude Tests, Coaching, Literature Reviews, Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), Scores, Test Wiseness


The research literature on short-term instruction (STI) and intermediate-term instruction (ITI) for the SATMathematicsand SAT-Verbal was reviewed. Selected studies of STI and ITI for tests other than the SAT-M and SAT-V, and of testwiseness (TW), per se, were included in the survey if they were judged relevant to the question of special instruction for the SAT. The research studies were reviewed and interpreted within the framework of a score components model which posited four content-related and two TW score components model which posited four content-related and two score components, as well as two secondary ones (test taking confidence and efficiency), that are theoretically subject to STI and ITI effects. In addition, examinee, item, and instructional characteristics were considered, as these relate to the score components model. Basic discrepancies between negative and positive findings were noted for both the SAT-M and the SAT-V. These were generally resolved in favor of recognizing meaningful STI effects for the SAT-M, but remain unresolved for the SAT-V. Recommendations were made for SAT-M and SAT-V research allowing STI effects to be partitioned according to examinee, item, and instructional characteristics, as these apply to selected test score components. (93pp.)

Read More