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Issues in the Recruitment, Professional Development, Promotion, and Remuneration of Women Faculty

Ekstrom, Ruth B.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Administrative Policy, College Faculty, Faculty Recruitment, Females, Professional Recognition, Promotion (Occupational), Salaries, Sex Discrimination


This report discusses women at higher educational institutions, their status or rank, their distributions in various academic fields, and their salaries. The availability of women for faculty positions and the process by which they are selected are discussed. Among the processes that can limit the hiring of women for academic positions are: the use of sex-biased criteria; institutional rules and regulations that disproportionately affect women; biased or unfair application of neutral criteria, such as differential expectations for and evaluations of men and women; and women's own self-concept and expectations for success. Even when young women are hired as faculty members, they are more likely to hold positions in the lower academic ranks than are men and they do not advance as rapidly up the career ladder. Women are often excluded from many of the opportunities that are available to men. Women faculty continue to be affected by the same myths and differential evaluation problems which may have limited their employment opportunities. Factors that account for women faculty earning less than do comparable male faculty are discussed.

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