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Effects of Item Disclosure on TOEFL Performance GREB TOEFL

Angelis, Paul J.; Hale, Gordon A.; Thibodeau, Lawrence A.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
College Board, Graduate Record Examinations Board, Coaching, English Tests, Foreign Students, Item Analysis, Performance Factors, Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)


The effect of disclosure was greater for students who received six disclosed forms than for those who received 12 forms. Student questionnaire information suggested that the time spent studying the disclosed material was unaffected by the number of forms. Additional evaluations showed disclosure effects for items in forms that were not discussed in class as well as for items that were discussed. The effect of disclosure was not due only to the class experience, as the students apparently studied the disclosed forms on their own. A disclosure effect was seen for each of three main language groups and for every item type.

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