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Summaries of Studies Involving the Test of English as a Foreign Language, 1963-1982 GREB TOEFL

Hale, Gordon A.; Stansfield, Charles W.; Duran, Richard P.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
College Board, Graduate Record Examinations Board, English (Second Language), English Tests, Language Proficiency, Performance Factors, Research Reports, Test Validity, Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)


This set of 82 summaries is based on papers written between 1963 and 1982 concerning the TOEFL® test (Test of English as a Foreign Language™). The TOEFL test is currently required by more than 2,500 colleges and universities in the United States and Canada to determine the English proficiency of applicants whose native language is not English. It is also required by various agencies and boards that accredit and license professionals trained abroad. While a few descriptive papers are included to provide historical background, the summarized papers are primarily research reports. Studies focusing on other instruments that provide data that relate performance on those instruments to the TOEFL test are also included. The summaries are indexed by nine major categories: (1) TOEFL's relationship to similar, standardized objective English language proficiency tests; (2) TOEFL's relationship to other measures of English language proficiency; (3) TOEFL's relationship to tests of intelligence, academic aptitude, and achievement; (4) TOEFL's relationship to later academic performance; (5) simple relation of the TOEFL test to student characteristics; (6) complex relations involving student characteristics; (7) statistical analysis involving the TOEFL test; (8) miscellaneous research issues; and (9) general descriptive papers. Papers are also indexed in 33 subcategories by types of TOEFL test results reported.

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