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Test Construction Manipulating Score Differences Between Black and White Examinees: Properties of the Resulting Tests

Hackett, Rachelle Kisst; Holland, Paul W.; Pearlman, Mari; Thayer, Dorothy T.
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Report Number:
ETS Research Report
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Subject/Key Words:
Black Students, Golden Rule, Item Analysis, Racial Differences, Test Bias, Test Construction, Testing Problems


Test forms for two item types were developed that maximized or minimized the differences in average scores between Black and White examinees. The test forms were then administered to random samples of examinees along with conventionally constructed control forms. The results suggest that impact manipulation is possible while maintaining content specifications and average difficulty level. However, the distribution of item difficulties was altered as were the reliability of the experimental sections and the relationships of these sections to other parts of the test. (43pp.)

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