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A Knowledge Base for Teacher Licensure: A Comparison of State Requirements, Professional Association Recommendations and Teacher,Teacher Educator, and Administrator Opinions of Teacher Preparation on the Principles of Learning and Teaching

Klem, Lynn; Reynolds, Anne; Wesley, Scott
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Beginning Teachers, Certification, Job Knowledge, Licensure, Teacher Certification, Teacher Qualifications, Teachers


A notable aspect of the educational reform movement is the increasing attention placed on procedures and assessments for licensing teachers. Currently, Educational Testing Service (ETS) is engaged in a large-scale development project related to teacher licensure. This project will develop a new generation of assessments for licensing beginning teachers. At the foundation of these assessments are two research projects. One of these, Project C H A R T, is an effort to identify state requirements for licensure in all subject areas currently being taught in elementary, middle, and secondary schools. This project is also identifying recommended standards established by professional organizations and associations concerning the skills and competencies on which teacher preparation programs should focus. The second project is a series of studies aimed at identifying what teacher candidates and new teachers should know and be able to do. The methodology being used in this research is job analysis. The purpose of these job analyses is to identify, through surveys of practicing professionals, the important knowledge areas and skills for new teachers. With these two projects, the question arises as to whether there is agreement among states, professional associations, and practicing professionals about what new teachers should know and be able to do. This paper addresses this question by comparing the results of Project C H A R T with the results of the job analysis for one area, General Principles of Teaching and Learning. General Principles of Teaching and Learning is a subject assessment that focuses on pedagogical principles that cross subject-matter and grade boundaries. The results of this comparison indicate that there is considerable agreement among states, professional associations, and the members of the educational community. There are, however, several areas of disagreement between and within these groups. The paper discusses the areas of agreement and disagreement as well as their implications for teacher preparation and regulation and the development of a knowledge base for teacher education. (31pp.)

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