skip to main content skip to footer

Direct Assessment, Direct Validation? An Example From the Assessment of Writing

Fowles, Mary E.; Powers, Donald E.; Willard, Ann E.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Essay Tests, Performance Assessment, Scoring, Standards, Test Reliability, Test Validity, User Satisfaction (Information), Writing Evaluation


(21pp.) Complex performance assessments are becoming increasingly popular, at least in part because of the directness with which these assessments are accomplished. As Messick (1992) has argued, however, the apparent directness of such measures does not exempt them from the need to marshal validity evidence in support of their use. An example is given of one kind of evidence-- assessment users' satisfaction with the performances generated by examinees--that may contribute to the validation of performance assessments. The example is from the realm of the direct assessment of writing in the context of graduate school admissions.

Read More