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Writing Assessment in Admission to Higher Education: Review and Framework GREB GRE LSAT CSUC(EPT) TOEFL ACT MCAT SAT

Breland, Hunter M.; Bridgeman, Brent; Fowles, Mary E.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
College Board, Graduate Record Examinations Board, Higher Education, Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), Law School Admission Test (LSAT), California State Universities and Colleges (CSUC) Testing Program, College Entrance Examinations, Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), American College Testing Program (ACT), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), Literature Reviews, Writing Tests, Writing Research, Test Reliability, Group Differences, Predictive Validity, Testing


A comprehensive review was conducted of writing research literature and writing test program activities in a number of testing programs. The review was limited to writing assessments used for admission in higher education. Programs reviewed included ACT, Inc.'s ACT program, the California State Universities and Colleges (CSUC) testing program, the College Board's SAT program, the Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) program, the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) test program, the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) program, the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) program, and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) testing program. Particular attention was given in the review to writing constructs, fairness and group differences, test reliability, and predictive validity. A number of recommendations are made for research on writing assessment.

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