Washback in Language Testing TOEFL ESL
Bailey, Kathleen M.
- Publication Year:
- Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
- Document Type:
- Page Count:
- Subject/Key Words:
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL),
English as a Second Language (ESL),
Washback Effect [Testing],
This monograph summarizes recent research on language testing washback. It begins by compiling several definitions of washback and related constructs. It then poses a model of language testing washback and examines the available research related to this model. The monograph concludes with recommendations for appropriate research methods to be used in future investigations of washback.