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Washback in Language Testing TOEFL ESL

Author(s):
Bailey, Kathleen M.
Publication Year:
1999
Report Number:
RM-99-04, TOEFL-MS-15
Source:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Report
Page Count:
54
Subject/Key Words:
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), English as a Second Language (ESL), Teaching Methods, Washback Effect [Testing], Language Tests, Language Teachers

Abstract

This monograph summarizes recent research on language testing washback. It begins by compiling several definitions of washback and related constructs. It then poses a model of language testing washback and examines the available research related to this model. The monograph concludes with recommendations for appropriate research methods to be used in future investigations of washback.

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