skip to main content skip to footer

TOEFL 2000 Framework: A Working Paper TOEFL ESL

Jamieson, Joan; Jones, Stan; Kirsch, Irwin S.; Mosenthal, Peter B.; Taylor, Carol
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Program Research, Test Construction, English as a Second Language (ESL), Grammar, Writing Skills, Listening Skills, Task Analysis, Communication Skills, Language Proficiency, TOEFL 2000


This paper lays out a preliminary working framework for the development of the TOEFL 2000 test. The goal of this first working framework is to guide the development of more specific frameworks and research agendas for the assessment of reading, writing, listening, and speaking, both as independent and integrated modalities. The monograph is organized into five major parts. The first part presents a general introduction to the goals and key components of the project. The second part presents the historical background and work of the project leading to the development of this framework. The third and fourth sections present our conceptualization of a working framework that includes identifying the test domain, organizing the test domain, identifying task characteristics, identifying and operationalizing the variables, validating the variables, and building an interpretive scheme. The paper concludes with a discussion of the plans for proceeding with the work of the project.

Read More