skip to main content skip to footer

TOEFL 2000 Writing Framework: A Working Paper TOEFL ESL

Cumming, Alister H.; Kantor, Robert; Powers, Donald E.; Santos, Terry; Taylor, Carol
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), TOEFL 2000, Scoring, Academic Skills, Communicative Competence (Languages), Writing Skills, English as a Second Language (ESL), Test Construction


This paper builds on TOEFL 2000 Framework: A Working Paper (Jamieson, Jones, Kirsch, Mosenthal, & Taylor, 1999) by setting out a preliminary working framework for the development of the writing assessment component of the TOEFL 2000 test. The monograph is organized into four major parts. Following a brief introduction, part two presents a conception of writing proficiency and focuses in particular on academic writing-the domain of the TOEFL 2000 test. The third part presents an initial writing framework for the test; it reviews the test domain, proposes an organizational scheme, and identifies the task variables of interest. The fourth section lays out an initial research agenda for establishing the validity of interpretations and the appropriateness of action that would result from the introduction of writing measures growing out of this framework and approach to test design. The paper concludes with a discussion on the important ways in which the TOEFL 2000 approach to testing writing is intended to improve on its predecessors.

Read More