This study explored individual differences in educational disadvantage-deficits in formal and informal education in the school, home, and elsewhere-in the SAT test-taking population. Data on variables that reflect educational disadvantage were obtained from SAT I: Reasoning Test takers via a mail survey and from archival records for their schools and neighborhoods. Factor analysis identified six educational disadvantage factors-four concerning the students' schools and two the students' nativity and parenting-and one family socioeconomic status factor. The educational disadvantage factors were moderately related to the family socioeconomic status factor, race/ethnicity, high school grades, and SAT scores. The individual-differences perspective on disadvantage appears to be a viable one, and educational disadvantage seems to be a meaningful and useful construct.