This study presents results from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 1998 reading assessment at grades 4 and 8 for students with disabilities (SD) and limited-English-proficient (LEP) students who were assessed either with or without accommodations. NAEP’s previously separate national and state samples from 1998 were combined and reweighted for this study. Results for the SD group are presented by gender, race/ethnicity, type and severity of disability, and by type of accommodation. Results are also presented for learning disabled students. For the LEP student group, results are presented by gender, years of instruction received in English, and type of accommodation. In addition, differential item functioning (DIF) analyses based on accommodation status (rather than on gender, race/ethnicity, etc.) were performed on NAEP test items; results indicated that the presence or absence of accommodations had little effect on performance within these special-needs groups.