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Examining Test Items for Differential Distractor Functioning Among Students With Learning Disabilities DDF

Middleton, Kyndra; Laitusis, Cara Cahalan
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Differential Distractor Functioning (DDF), Learning Disabilities, Test Accommodations, Assessing People with Disabilities


This study examined whether distractor choices functioned differently for students without learning disabilities than they functioned for students with learning disabilities who received no accommodation, students with learning disabilities who received read-aloud accommodation, and students with learning disabilities who received some form of accommodation other than read-aloud. The study’s purpose was twofold: (a) to examine the results of the DDF analysis to determine whether the distractors functioned differently for the various groups of students and (b) to aid in determining whether the test may be modified for those students with learning disabilities by removing a distractor while maintaining adequate test validity and information.

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