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Factor Structure of the TOEFL Internet-Based Test (iBT): Exploration in a Field Trial Sample TOEFL iBT

Sawaki, Yasuyo; Stricker, Lawrence J.; Oranje, Andreas
Publication Year:
Report Number:
RR-08-09, TOEFLiBT-04
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Internet Based Testing (iBT), Construct Validity, Factor Analysis


The integrated Speaking and Writing tasks, which require language processing in multiple modalities, well defined the target modalities (speaking and writing). These results broadly support the current reporting of four scores corresponding to the modalities and a total score, as well as the test design where the integrated tasks contribute only to the scores for the target modalities.

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