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Repeater Analyses for TOEFL iBT TOEFL iBT

Zhang, Yanling
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Internet Based Testing (iBT), Test Repeaters, Validity


The operational administrations of TOEFL iBT began in September 2005 and gradually expanded to the rest of the world in 2006. Some TOEFL iBT test-takers chose to take the test more than once and they were categorized as repeaters. Knowledge about the performance of these repeaters as a group provides useful information in evaluation of the consistency and validity of the test scores resulting from test forms given at different administrations. This study evaluated the repeater performance on the TOEFL iBT tests in 2007. The findings indicated that small mean score changes were observed between performance on the two tests and the correlations between the two tests were moderate to high.

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