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What Effect Does the Inclusion or Exclusion of Repeaters Have on Test Equating? RESD DTM

Puhan, Gautam
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Test Equating, Test Repeaters, Root Expected Square Difference (RESD), Difference That Matters (DTM), Anchor Test Study


This study investigated the effect of inclusion or exclusion of test repeaters on equating results. New forms of two tests were equated to their respective old forms using either all examinees or only the first-time examinees in the new form sample. Since the old forms were the first forms administered for these tests, there were no repeaters and therefore the old form samples were unaltered. Results showed that for both tests, inclusion or exclusion of repeaters in the new form sample had very little impact on the final equating results. These findings do not provide enough evidence to support routine exclusion of repeaters from the equating sample before conducting the equating.

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