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Validity Evidence to Support the Development of a Licensure Assessment for Reading: A Job-Analytic Approach

Robustelli, Stacy L.; Tannenbaum, Richard J.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Job Analysis, Licensure, Certification, Reading, Teachers, Validity, Praxis


A job analysis was conducted to define knowledge/skills important for entry-level reading teachers. The results will be used to guide the development of new test content specifications for the Praxis Series™ Reading (Kindergarten through Grade 12) assessment. A draft domain was constructed from various national and professional organization standards (e.g., Standards for Reading Professionals—Revised 2003 [Standards 2003], International Reading Association, 2004), state standards, and previous test content specifications for the Reading Across the Curriculum: Elementary (ETS, The Praxis Series, RACE, 2009, p. 1) and the Reading Across the Curriculum: Secondary (ETS, The Praxis Series, RACS, 2009, p. 1) assessments. A national advisory committee of reading teachers, college faculty, Department of Education representatives, and one consultant reviewed and modified the draft domain to reflect the knowledge/skills it believed were important for safe and effective practice and needed at time of entry into the profession. The revised domain consisted of 74 statements clustered within eight major categories: Emergent Literacy, Phonological Awareness, Alphabetic Principles/Phonics, Fluency, Comprehension, Vocabulary, Pedagogical Principles of Reading Instruction, and Professional Roles and Responsibilities. A survey to verify the importance of the domain was completed by 436 respondents (teachers and college faculty). Respondents judged each knowledge/skill statement on a scale ranging from 1 (not at all important) to 5 (extremely important). All of the 74 knowledge/skill statements had mean ratings above 3.50 in the aggregate sample and for subgroups containing more than 30 respondents. These results indicate that these 74 statements may be considered appropriate for guiding the development of new test content specifications for the Praxis Series Reading assessment.

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