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TOEIC Listening and Reading Test Scale Anchoring Study

Liao, Chi-Wen
Publication Year:
Report Number:
TOEIC Compendium
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
English as a Foreign Language (EFL) English as a Second Language (ESL) English Language Proficiency English Language Skills Listening Skills Reading Skills Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC) Test Scales Test-Taker Performance Validity


SUMMARY: Scale anchoring is a process that groups test scores into score ranges or proficiency levels. It uses a combination of statistical methods and expert judgment to produce descriptions of the skills and knowledge typically exhibited by test takers at each proficiency level. This research report describes the scale anchoring process for TOEIC Listening and Reading tests, which facilitates meaningful score interpretations. ABSTRACT: TOEIC test examinees and test users have increasingly expressed the need to better understand the meaning of reported scaled scores, which are numeric scores and provide information pertaining only to an individual’s relative performance on a specific TOEIC test scale. In addition to scaled scores, the TOEIC test customers would also like to obtain diagnostic-like information pertaining to a scaled score, such as what English–language skills an individual has and how well-developed these skills are. This information can play an instrumental role in activities related to learning, instruction, and employment selection for both examinees and test users. To meet these customer needs, a TOEIC test scale anchoring study was conducted at ETS in May 2005 as a part of the test development plan for the Redesigned TOEIC Listening and Reading test. The purpose of the study was to provide examinees with descriptive score proficiency information related to their TOEIC test scaled scores. This paper is part of the Research Foundation for TOEIC: A Compendium of Studies, published by ETS in 2010.

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