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Evidence-Centered Design for Learning ECD

Hansen, Eric G.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Evidence-Centered Design (ECD), Learning, Assessment, Validity, Learning Effectiveness, Assessing People with Disabilities


There is a pressing need for principles to guide the design of high quality learning-oriented products. ETS’s evidence-centered design (ECD) methodology has been useful for the design of assessments. This document extends the ECD methodology to learning-oriented products that provide instruction, guidance, training, and other learning experiences—thereby providing what may be termed ECD for learning (ECDL). While ECD is generally concerned with the state of a person's state (represented by the student model), ECDL is particularly concerned with changes in the person, specifically growth or learning in the person. Specifically, ECDL extends ECD in at least two major ways. First, it augments the main ECD models (student/proficiency, evidence, and task) with another model called the pedagogical model that describes how to foster growth and learning. Second, ECDL methodology seeks to provide highly integrated ways of considering diverse product quality criteria such as engagement, accessibility, validity, learning-effectiveness, and learning efficiency.

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