Alternative approaches are discussed for use of e-rater to score the TOEFL iBT Writing test. These approaches involve alternate criteria. In the 1st approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of the examinee's 2 essays. In the 2nd approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of 2 essay responses by the examinee on a parallel form. This 2nd approach is related to prediction of the expected rater score of 2 essay responses on an actual form taken later by an examinee. The relationship of e-rater scores to scores on other TOEFL sections is also considered. These alternative approaches suggest somewhat different procedures for scoring.