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Validity Evidence to Support the Revision of a Licensure Assessment for World and U.S. History Teachers: A Job-Analytic Approach

Swiggett, Wanda D.; Tannenbaum, Richard J.; Raina, Uta; Wolcott, David B.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Job Analysis, Licensure, Certification, World History, US History, Validity, Praxis


A job analysis was conducted to define knowledge/skills important for entry-level world and U.S. history teachers. The results will be used to guide the development of new test content specifications for the Praxis World and U.S. History assessment. A draft domain was constructed from existing test specifications, national standards, content standards from user states, major textbooks in world history, major textbooks in United States history, and discussions of historical thinking and pedagogy in the recent scholarly literature. A national advisory committee (NAC) of world and U.S. history teachers and college faculty reviewed and modified the draft domain to reflect the knowledge/skills they believed were important for safe and effective practice and needed at time of entry into the profession. The revised domain consisted of 70 statements clustered within four major categories: (a) Historical Thinking Skills, (b) Teaching and Pedagogy in History, (c) World History, and (d) United States History. Survey responses of 414 world and U.S. history educators provided independent evidence of the importance of the domain. Respondents judged each knowledge/skill statement on a scale ranging from 1 (not at all important) to 5 (extremely important). Sixty-nine knowledge/skill statements had mean ratings above 3.50 in the aggregate sample and for subgroups containing more than 30 respondents. These results indicate that 69 statements may be considered appropriate for guiding the development of new test content specifications for the Praxis World and U.S. History assessment.

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