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English-as-a-Second-Language Programs for Matriculated Students in the United States: An Exploratory Survey and Some Issues

Ling, Guangming; Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Cho, Yeonsuk; Wang, Yuan
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
English as a Second Language (ESL), Placement Tests, Matriculation, English Language Learning Programs, Student Placement, Procedures, Higher Education


Analyses of these three sources of data revealed that ESL programs for matriculated students exist in more than half of colleges and universities sampled, that they provide a wide range of ESL courses focusing on different language skills, and that these programs make use of a variety of placement tests and procedures. We summarize these different placement procedures using a general model, highlight issues that need further investigations, and conclude with key findings and limitations.

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