This study investigates the relationship between test preparation and test performance on the TOEFL iBT exam. Information on background variables and test preparation strategies was gathered from 14,593 respondents in China through an online survey. A Chinese standardized English test was used as a control for prior English ability. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the relationship of coaching school attendance and test preparation strategies with TOEFL iBT total scores. Coaching school attendance had little or no relationship with TOEFL test scores across language domains. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that general English learning strategies and test-specific strategies represent two distinct factors of test preparation. Implications of the findings for test developers and test sponsors are discussed.