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Improving Content Assessment for English Language Learners: Studies of the Linguistic Modification of Test Items ELL

Young, John W.; King, Teresa C.; Hauck, Maurice Cogan; Ginsburgh, Mitchell; Kotloff, Lauren J.; Cabrera, Julio; Cavalie, Carlos
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
English Language Learners (ELL), Cognitive Interviews, Linguistic Modification, Content Assessment, Elementary Secondary Education, K-12 Students, Test Items


However, both groups of students performed better on some items, about the same on some other items, and worse on yet some other items. Cognitive interviews were conducted as a follow-up study to investigate which features of the linguistically modified items produced the observed outcomes for ELLs and non-ELLs. The results from this study added little clarity with regards to which of the linguistic modifications were effective and how they improved the understanding and performance of ELLs on these content items.

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