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Automated Trait Scores for TOEFL Writing Tasks PISA

Attali, Yigal; Sinharay, Sandip
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Automated Scoring, e-rater, Augmented Score, Alternative Feature Weighting Schemes, Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Computer-Based Testing (CBT), TOEFL iBT


In addition, augmented trait scores, based on information from other trait scores, were also analyzed. The psychometric added value of trait scores beyond total e-rater scores was evaluated by comparing the ability to predict a particular trait score on one task from the same trait score on the other task versus the e-rater score on the other task. Results supported the use of trait scores, and are discussed in terms of their contribution to the construct validity of e-rater as an alternative essay scoring method.

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