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The Key Practice, Discuss and Debate Ideas: Conceptual Framework, Literature Review, and Provisional Learning Progressions for Argumentation

Deane, Paul; Song, Yi
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
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Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Argumentation Learning Progressions, Key Practice, Learning Progression, Literature Review


In this paper, we provide a comprehensive literature review on the development of key argumentation skills to lay a foundation for a framework of the key practice, discuss and debate ideas, which is centrally involved in the expectations for academic reading and writing. Specifically, the framework includes 5 phases of core activities and related sets of argumentation skills, and for each set of skills, a provisional learning progression is designed to identify qualitative shifts in the development of critical argumentation skills informed by the developmental literature. These learning may have the potential to support teachers' instructional decisions that effectively scaffold their students to the next level.

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