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Designing the TOEFL Primary Tests TOEFL EFL ELL

Cho, Yeonsuk; Ginsburgh, Mitchell; Morgan, Rick; Moulder, Bradley C.; Xi, Xiaoming; Hauck, Maurice Cogan
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
English as a Foreign Language (EFL), Test Design, Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), TOEFL Primary, Elementary Education, English Language Learners (ELL), Children


The paper is organized into three parts. The first part presents the conceptual work that was undertaken to describe the intended population of test takers and to formulate a construct definition of young EFL learners’ English ability. In the second part, we explain how the TOEFL Primary tests were designed. In the final part, we discuss the research needed to build validity arguments for the new tests and to advance our understanding of their intended population.

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