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Effects of Printed Option Sets on Listening Item Performance Among Young English-as-a-Foreign-Language Learners TOEFL

Getman, Edward; Cho, Yeonsuk; Luce, Christine
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Printed Materials, Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), TOEFL Primary, Listening Tests, Children, Generalized Linear Mixed Model, English Language Learners (ELL)


The listening test items were counterbalanced across test forms to control for order effects. Participants also completed a brief survey on their perceptions about the relative difficulty of listening items under the two conditions. A repeated-measure general linear model (GLM) was employed to compare performance of listening items under both conditions. Results indicated that the presence of printed text options did not make items more difficult for test takers. In addition, test takers perceived that the presence of text options made the listening items easier, contrary to the concern that motivated the current study.

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