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Continuing a Culture of Evidence: Expanding Skills in Higher Education

Oliveri, Maria Elena; Markle, Ross
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Student Learning Outcomes, Student Improvement, Educational Accountability, Noncognitive Skills, 21st Century Skills, Workplace Skills, Public Policy, Complex Skill Assessment, Collaborative of Academic Social and Emotional Learning (CASEL), Culture of Evidence, Expanding Skills in Higher Education


From 2006 to 2008, Educational Testing Service (ETS) produced a series of reports titled A Culture of Evidence, designed to capture a changing climate in higher education assessment. A decade later, colleges and universities face a new set of challenges resulting from societal, technological, and other influences, leading to a need to augment the skills expected of college graduates. This report is one of a new series of reports by ETS describing current issues and trends in higher education with a focus on assessment. In this report, we discuss shifts in cognitive and noncognitive skills expected of college graduates in response to new educational and occupational demands. In particular, we describe these demands, the factors influencing them, and the impact of these factors on the instruction and assessment of skills needed for success in higher education and the workforce.

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