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A Framework for the Dual Language Assessment of Young Dual Language Learners in the United States ELL DLLs CAF

Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Lopez, Alexis A.; Tolentino, Florencia
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Report
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Dual Language Learners (DLLs), Framework, Translanguaging, English Language Learners (ELL), Language Development, Language Learning Tools, Spanish Language, Scoring, Early Childhood Education, Conceptual Assessment Framework (CAF), Language Assessment


Dual language learners (DLLs) and the various educational programs that serve them are increasing in number across the country. This framework lays out a conceptual approach for dual language assessment tasks designed to measure the language and literacy skills of young DLLs entering kindergarten in the United States. Although our examples focus on Spanish–English DLLs, we anticipate that our recommendations could be broadly applied to other language combinations with appropriate adaptations for each language.

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