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Development of the Redesigned TOEIC Bridge Tests

Everson, Philip; Duke, Trina; Garcia Gomez, Pablo; Carter Grissom, Elizabeth; Park, Elizabeth; Schmidgall, Jonathan
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) English Language Proficiency Evidence-Centered Design (ECD) Field Tests Listening Skills Pilot Test Proficiency Level Definitions Raters Reading Skills Redesign Speaking Skills Task Design Test Design TOEIC Bridge Test Usability Studies Writing Skills


The redesigned TOEIC Bridge tests were developed using an assessment development methodology called evidence-centered design (ECD). This paper documents how ECD was used to design tasks that elicited evidence of test takers’ basic- to intermediate-level English proficiency, and how various sources of data obtained throughout the test development process influenced item and test design decisions. The suite of TOEIC assessments measures the English language proficiency of nonnative speakers in the international workplace and everyday life. The TOEIC tests focus on measuring intermediate to advanced workplace English proficiency. The TOEIC Bridge test focuses on measuring beginning to intermediate everyday English proficiency. The TOEIC Listening and Reading test has been in use since 1979. In response to market needs for direct measures of speaking and writing skills, the TOEIC Speaking and Writing tests were added in 2006 to the suite of TOEIC assessments. The TOEIC Bridge test was introduced in 2001 as a measure of the listening and reading abilities of beginning to intermediate English learners. In 2017, in order to bring the TOEIC Bridge test into alignment with the TOEIC tests and to more fully meet test taker and score user needs, the TOEIC program initiated the design of a 4-skills suite of TOEIC Bridge assessments. Because the TOEIC program recognizes the evolving nature of international English communication, the decision was made to not simply add speaking and writing assessments to the existing two-skill TOEIC Bridge test but also design new assessments for all 4 skills.

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