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The Malleability of Workplace-Relevant Noncognitive Constructs: Empirical Evidence From 39 Meta-Analyses and Reviews

Martin-Raugh, Michelle; Kevin M. Williams; Lentini, Jennifer
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Report Number:
ETS Research Report
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Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Workplace, Noncognitive Constructs, Meta-Analysis, Interpersonal Skills, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Skills, Communication Skills, Leadership, Teamwork, Personality, Attitudes, Self Concept, Emotion, Motivation, Attitude Change


We reviewed the current state of the literature on the intervention-based development of interpersonal skills (e.g., teamwork, leadership) and intrapersonal skills (e.g., personality, motivation, etc.) relevant to success in workplace contexts. We adopted a multidisciplinary approach to our review, evaluating research from 39 reviews and meta-analyses from several fields such as educational psychology, industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology, medicine, and personality psychology, among others, to examine the extent to which noncognitive constructs change as a result of intervention. We discuss key findings and trends and conclude by identifying gaps in the literature and directions for future research. Overall, findings suggest optimism regarding the malleability of noncognitive constructs.

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