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Skills and Earnings in the Full-Time Labor Market
Neeta Fogg, Paul Harrington, and Ishwar Khatiwada

Appendix C: Mean Monthly Earnings of Subgroups of Workers by Literacy and Numeracy Proficiency Levels

Table C-1: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Educational Attainment Levels and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings by Literacy Proficiency Levels

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Education

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

No H.S. diploma

1,898 2,564 3,383 --- 0.74 1.00 1.32 ---

H.S. diploma

3,248 3,325 3,802 6,119 0.98 1.00 1.14 1.84

Some college

2,776 3,526 4,093 4,836 0.79 1.00 1.16 1.37

College/trade school certificate

3,301 3,347 4,209 5,028 0.99 1.00 1.26 1.50

Associate's degree

4,853 3,789 4,283 4,119 1.28 1.00 1.13 1.09

Some college, certificate, & associate's degree combined

3,306 3,540 4,189 4,597 0.93 1.00 1.18 1.30

Bachelor's degree

4,103 5,247 5,887 6,739 0.78 1.00 1.12 1.28

Master's or higher degree

6,522 6,758 6,961 8,218 0.97 1.00 1.03 1.22

All

2,939 3,805 5,067 6,717 0.77 1.00 1.33 1.77

Table C-2: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Educational Attainment Levels and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings by Numeracy Proficiency Levels

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Education

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

No H.S. Diploma

1,979 2,579 3,649 --- 0.77 1.00 1.41 ---

H.S. Diploma

3,113 3,476 4,260 6,220 0.90 1.00 1.23 1.79

Some College

2,981 3,576 4,403 4,918 0.83 1.00 1.23 1.38

College/trade school certificate

2,899 3,464 4,603 5,453 0.84 1.00 1.33 1.57

Associate's degree

4,147 4,062 4,096 4,491 1.02 1.00 1.01 1.11

Some college, certificate, & associate's degree (combined)

3,241 3,681 4,344 4,917 0.88 1.00 1.18 1.34

Bachelor's degree

4,354 5,224 6,028 7,058 0.83 1.00 1.15 1.35

Master's or higher degree

7,541 6,039 7,089 8,575 1.25 1.00 1.17 1.42

All

3,112 3,989 5,392 7,133 0.78 1.00 1.35 1.79

Table C-3: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Gender and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings by Literacy Proficiency Levels

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Gender

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

All

2,939 3,805 5,067 6,717 0.77 1.00 1.33 1.77

Male

3,245 4,256 5,700 7,476 0.76 1.00 1.34 1.76

Female

2,428 3,259 4,339 5,595 0.74 1.00 1.33 1.72

Table C-4: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Gender and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings by Numeracy Proficiency Levels

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

All

3,112 3,989 5,392 7,133 0.78 1.00 1.35 1.79

Male

3,421 4,323 5,915 7,506 0.79 1.00 1.37 1.74

Female

2,778 3,643 4,728 6,040 0.76 1.00 1.30 1.66

Table C-5: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Age Group and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings by Literacy Proficiency Levels

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

25-34

2,842 3,213 4,037 5,174 0.88 1.00 1.26 1.61

35-44

2,664 3,916 5,517 7,985 0.68 1.00 1.41 2.04

45-54

3,201 4,279 5,727 7,380 0.75 1.00 1.34 1.72

Table C-6: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Age Group and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings by Numeracy Proficiency Levels

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

25-34

2,896 3,372 4,163 5,532 0.86 1.00 1.23 1.64

35-44

2,956 4,143 6,051 8,496 0.71 1.00 1.46 2.05

45-54

3,407 4,457 6,175 7,703 0.76 1.00 1.39 1.73

Table C-7: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Major Race-Ethnic Group and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

White

3,426 3,881 5,110 6,720 0.88 1.00 1.32 1.73

Black

2,796 3,399 4,345 8,567 0.82 1.00 1.28 2.52

Hispanic

2,522 3,447 4,334 5,463 0.73 1.00 1.26 1.58

All Other

3,896 5,066 6,502 6,438 0.77 1.00 1.28 1.27

Table C-8: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Major Race-Ethnic Group and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

White

3,273 4,107 5,369 7,177 0.80 1.00 1.31 1.75

Black

3,109 3,736 5,345 9,688 0.83 1.00 1.43 2.59

Hispanic

2,788 3,315 4,412 6,128 0.84 1.00 1.33 1.85

All Other

4,030 4,885 6,820 6,581 0.82 1.00 1.40 1.35

Table C-9: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Years of Work Experience Group and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

0-9

2,153 3,157 3,887 5,351 0.68 1.00 1.23 1.70

10-19

2,913 3,371 4,664 6,337 0.86 1.00 1.38 1.88

20-29

3,053 4,061 5,593 7,655 0.75 1.00 1.38 1.88

30+

3,459 4,647 5,784 7,503 0.74 1.00 1.24 1.61

Table C-10: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Years of Work Experience Group and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

0-9

2,560 3,277 3,996 5,608 0.78 1.00 1.22 1.71

10-19

2,926 3,518 4,959 6,909 0.83 1.00 1.41 1.96

20-29

3,234 4,352 6,104 8,113 0.74 1.00 1.40 1.86

30+

3,754 4,689 6,176 7,720 0.80 1.00 1.32 1.65

Table C-11: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Nativity and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

Native-born

3,163 3,708 4,981 6,677 0.85 1.00 1.34 1.80

Foreign-born

2,684 4,292 5,792 7,228 0.63 1.00 1.35 1.68

Table C-12: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Nativity and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

Native-born

3,150 3,983 5,354 7,075 0.79 1.00 1.34 1.78

Foreign-born

3,035 4,027 5,689 7,681 0.75 1.00 1.41 1.91

Table C-13: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Self-Reported English Writing Ability and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

Very well

3,293 3,952 5,084 6,739 0.83 1.00 1.29 1.71

Well

3,166 3,524 4,969 6,153 0.90 1.00 1.41 1.75

Not well/not at all

2,347 2,663 3,387 --- 0.88 1.00 1.27 ---

Table C-14: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Self-Reported English Writing Ability and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

Very well

3,367 4,141 5,448 7,146 0.81 1.00 1.32 1.73

Well

3,165 3,615 5,020 6,749 0.88 1.00 1.39 1.87

Not well/not at all

2,397 2,514 2,685 16,250 0.95 1.00 1.07 6.46

Table C-15: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Self-Reported Disability Status and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

With disabilities

2,597 3,545 4,599 5,547 0.73 1.00 1.30 1.56

Without disabilities

3,086 3,880 5,140 6,866 0.80 1.00 1.32 1.77

Table C-16: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Self-Reported Disability Status and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

With disabilities

2,730 3,670 4,688 6,160 0.74 1.00 1.28 1.68

Without disabilities

3,253 4,062 5,504 7,275 0.80 1.00 1.35 1.79

Table C-17: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Sector of Employment and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

Private sector

2,955 3,857 5,192 7,053 0.77 1.00 1.35 1.83

Public sector

2,794 3,766 4,799 6,309 0.74 1.00 1.27 1.68

Nonprofit sector

3,133 3,194 4,936 5,566 0.98 1.00 1.55 1.74

Table C-18: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Sector of Employment and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

Private sector

3,098 3,992 5,543 7,456 0.78 1.00 1.39 1.87

Public sector

3,144 4,043 5,033 6,905 0.78 1.00 1.24 1.71

Nonprofit sector

3,207 3,729 5,234 5,137 0.86 1.00 1.40 1.38

Table C-19: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Region of Residence and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

Northeast

3,329 4,703 5,350 6,782 0.71 1.00 1.14 1.44

Midwest

3,095 3,741 4,677 6,167 0.83 1.00 1.25 1.65

South

2,825 3,463 4,826 6,621 0.82 1.00 1.39 1.91

West

2,764 3,885 5,604 7,303 0.71 1.00 1.44 1.88

Table C-20: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Region of Residence and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Group

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

Northeast

3,547 4,528 5,849 7,054 0.78 1.00 1.29 1.56

Midwest

3,270 3,830 4,943 6,629 0.85 1.00 1.29 1.73

West

2,927 3,715 5,185 7,060 0.79 1.00 1.40 1.90

South

3,048 4,267 5,749 7,769 0.71 1.00 1.35 1.82

Table C-21: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Occupation and Literacy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Occupation

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

Skilled

4,375 4,774 5,835 7,368 0.92 1.00 1.22 1.54

Semi-skilled white-collar

2,857 2,886 3,402 3,460 0.99 1.00 1.18 1.20

Semi-skilled blue-collar

2,708 3,557 4,228 4,921 0.76 1.00 1.19 1.38

Elementary

2,013 2,848 2,688 2,591 0.71 1.00 0.94 0.91

Table C-22: Mean Monthly Earnings of Full-Time Workers, 25 to 54 Years Old, by Occupation and Numeracy Proficiency Levels, 2012-2014 (Standard Errors in Parentheses)

Mean Monthly Earnings

Monthly Earnings Compared to Level 2

Occupation

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Level 1 or below

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4/5

Source: 2012 and 2014 PIAAC surveys, restricted use files, tabulations by authors.

Skilled

4,102 4,902 6,164 7,836 0.84 1.00 1.26 1.60

Semi-skilled white-collar

2,886 2,995 3,511 3,435 0.96 1.00 1.17 1.15

Semi-skilled blue-collar

2,816 3,606 4,376 4,704 0.78 1.00 1.21 1.30

Elementary

2,146 2,823 2,761 --- 0.76 1.00 0.98 ---