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Retooling Literacy Education for the Twenty-First Century:
Key Findings of the Reading for Understanding Initiative and Their Implications

Skills and Earnings in the Full-Time Labor Market
Neeta Fogg, Paul Harrington, and Ishwar Khatiwada

About the Authors

Neeta Fogg is Research Professor at the Center for Labor Markets and Policy at Drexel University; Paul Harrington is Professor and Director of the Center; Ishwar Khatiwada is an Economist at the Center.

These authors have worked together for many years exploring various measures of human capital and the ways in which these human capital traits are valued in the labor market relative to other traits. Their research in this area has focused on four key measures of human capital: behavioral character traits, social skills, occupational knowledge, and literacy and numeracy. They have employed a variety of research techniques such as statistical analysis of large-scale databases with human capital measures, longitudinal analysis of educational progress and outcomes at the state and local level, net impact evaluation methods, and interviews with hundreds of employers, educators, organized labor leaders, and youth groups.

A sample of their research and evaluation projects in recent years includes studies of the impact of disability on a variety of education and employment outcomes. They have also studied the nature of youth disconnection in cities across the nation. The authors have engaged in net impact evaluation studies of program interventions by high schools and workforce development programs. They have produced a series of papers on the relationship between college education and labor market outcomes of those with college degrees at the undergraduate and graduate level. Related to this has been a set of papers examining the underutilization in the U.S. labor markets of foreign-born college graduates with degrees earned abroad. A key research focus of the authors in recent years has been assessing impacts of an aging population on the labor force and its implications on the delivery of long-term care to this rapidly aging population.

The authors have published numerous research monographs, book chapters, and articles in these research areas. Some of their recent publications include Gray Warnings: Challenges in the Direct Care Workforce; Opportunity Rising: Increases in Human Capital Investment and Declines in Disconnection among Teens and Young Adults in Los Angeles; The Human Capital Investment Gap: Understanding the Diminished Prospects of Disconnected Youth in Los Angeles; From Diplomas to Degrees: A Longitudinal Study of College Enrollment and Graduation Outcomes of High School Graduates from the School District of Philadelphia; The 2018 Summer Job Outlook for American Teens; The Collapse of the Labor Market for 16- to 24-Year-Olds; and U.S. Teens Want Work.

Prior to 2011, the authors worked with Andrew M. Sum at the Center for Labor Market Studies at Northeastern University in Boston.