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Too Big To Fail: Millennials on the Margins
Anita Sands and Madeline Goodman


Anita M. Sands

Anita M. Sands works as a researcher and author in the ETS Center for Research on Human Capital & Education. Her published work covers economic opportunity, racial and economic segregation, concentrated poverty, research methodology and program evaluations. Most recently, Sands has co-authored two ETS reports – America's Skills Challenge: Millennials and the Future (2015) and Choosing Our Future: A Story of Opportunity in America (2016). Prior to joining ETS in 2011, Sands taught in the Department of Sociology at Rider University for nearly two decades and owned a consulting firm where she directed numerous projects on racial and economic segregation, poverty and land-use policy. Sands is ABD in Sociology from Temple University.

Madeline J. Goodman

Madeline J. Goodman works as a researcher and author for the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) at ETS. Since joining the organization, Goodman has served as coordinator for the NAEP social science assessments and director for the NAEP website. Goodman has written numerous national, state, district and special reports based on national and international assessments including, most recently, America's Skills Challenge: Millennials and the Future. Goodman received a Ph.D. in U.S. history from Carnegie Mellon University and is the recipient of a Spencer Fellowship for research on improvement in education and a Fulbright Scholar Award.

Irwin Kirsch

Irwin Kirsch is the Ralph Tyler Chair in Large Scale Assessment and Director of the Center for Global Assessment at Educational Testing Service in Princeton, NJ. In his role as director of the center he oversees several teams of research scientists and project managers who are responsible for the management, development and implementation of various large scale international assessments as well as the creation of policy reports focusing on human capital and education.

Over the course of his career, Kirsch has worked in close collaboration with a number of state, national and international organizations including the World Bank, UNESCO, the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), where he currently serves as the International Survey Director for both PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) and PIAAC (Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies).

In addition to his assessment work, Kirsch is a member of the ETS Research Management Team, serves as an ad hoc reviewer for several journals, and has authored or co-authored a series of monographs for ETS on education, health and workforce readiness issues. His most recent policy report titled Choosing Our Future: A Story of Opportunity in America seeks to provide understanding and communicate about the dynamics that govern the distribution and transmission of opportunity and proposes a framework for policies to expand opportunity for all Americans.