Too Big To Fail: Millennials on the Margins
Anita Sands and Madeline Goodman
18 Lewis and Burd-Sharps, Halve the Gap.
19 Congressional Research Service, Disconnected Youth: A Look at 16 to 24 Year Olds Who Are not Working or in School, by Adrienne L. Fernandes-Alcantara (2015), https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R40535.pdf.
20 Stéphane Carcillo, Rodrigo Fernández, Sebastian Königs, and Andreea Minea, NEET Youth in the Aftermath of the Crisis: Challenges and Policies (Paris: OECD Publishing, 2015).
21 Congressional Research Service, Disconnected Youth. See also Annie E. Casey Foundation, Youth and Work: Restoring Teen and Young Adult Connections to Opportunity (Baltimore, Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2012), http://www.aecf.org/m/resourcedoc/AECF-YouthAndWork-2012-Full.pdf.
22 OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills (Paris: OECD Publishing, 2013).
23 OECD, Time for the U.S.; U.S. Department of Education, Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education, Making Skills Everyone's Business: A Call to Transform Adult Learning in the United States (Washington, DC: Author, 2015).
24 Reid Cramer, "Millennials Rising: Coming of Age in the Wake of the Great Recession," New America (2014): 11-19; Pew Research Center's reporting on millennials, http://www.pewresearch.org/topics/millennials/.
25 U.S. Department of Education, Making Skills Everyone's Business; regarding skills and wages, see Neeta Fogg, Paul Harrington, and Ishwar Khatiwada, The Impact of Human Capital Investments on the Earnings of American Workers, Center for Labor Markets and Policy, Drexel University (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, forthcoming); and Autor, "Skills, Education."
26 National Research Council, Civic Engagement and Social Cohesion: Measuring Dimensions of Social Capital to Inform Policy. Kenneth Prewitt, Christopher D. Mackie, and Hermann Habermann (Eds.), Panel on Measuring Social and Civic Engagement and Social Cohesion in Surveys, Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2014), https://www.nap.edu/read/18831/chapter/1#viii.
27 Henry Braun, "The Dynamics of Opportunity in America: A Working Framework," in The Dynamics of Opportunity in America: Evidence and Perspectives, ed. Irwin Kirsch and Henry Braun (New York: Springer, 2016), 137-164; Kirsch et al., Choosing Our Future; Richard Wilkinson and Kate Pickett, The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Better for Everyone (London, Penguin, 2010); OECD, Time for the U.S.; U.S. Department of Education, Making Skills Everyone's Business.
28 Janet Currie, "Inequality at Birth: Some Causes and Consequences," American Economic Review 101, no. 3: 1-22 (2011), https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/aer.101.3.1.
29 Emma Garcia, Inequalities at the Starting Gate: Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills Gaps between 2010-2011 Kindergarten Classes, Economic Policy Institute, June 17, 2015, http://www.epi.org/files/pdf/85032c.pdf; Timothy M. Smeeding, "Gates, Gaps, and Intergenerational Mobility: The Importance of an Even Start," in The Dynamics of Opportunity in America: Evidence and Perspectives, ed. Irwin Kirsch and Henry Braun (New York: Springer, 2016), 255-295; Neera Kaushal, Katherine Magnuson, and Jane Waldfogel, "How is Family Income Related to Investments in Children's Learning?", in Whither Opportunity? Rising Inequality, Schools, and Children's Life Chance, ed. Greg J. Duncan and Richard Murnane (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2011).
30 Elizabeth McNichol, Douglas Hall, David Cooper, and Vincent Palacios, Pulling Apart: A State-by-State Analysis of Income Trends, Center on Budget and Policy Priorities and Economic Policy Institute, November 15, 2012, http://www.epi.org/files/2012/Pulling-Apart-11-15-12sfp.pdf; Kirsch et al., Choosing Our Future; for research on social mobility see Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, Patrick Kline, and Emmanuel Saez, Where is the Land of Opportunity? The Geography of Intergenerational Mobility in the United States, NBER Working Paper No. 19843 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 2014); Raj Chetty, David Grusky, Maximilian Hell, Nathaniel Hendren, Robert Manduca, and Jimmy Narang, The Fading American Dream: Trends in Absolute Income Mobility Since 1940, Science (2017), doi:10.1126/science.aal4617.
31 Josh Hoxie, "Income Segregation and Familiarity," Inequality.org, http://inequality.org/great-divide/income-segregation-familiarity/.