Choosing Our Future: A Story of Opportunity in America
Irwin Kirsch, Henry Braun, Mary Louise Lennon, and Anita Sands
55 Michael Gerson, "Our Disconnected Working Class," Washington Post, May 15, 2014, https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/michael-gerson-our-disconnected-working-class/2014/05/15/f02fdac8-dc52-11e3-8009-71de85b9c527_story.html.
56 See, for example, "Dimensions of Social Capital," The Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey, http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/saguaro/communitysurvey/results5.html, and Social Capital Glossary, Saguaro Seminar: Civic Engagement in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School, accessed September 10, 2015), http://www.hks.harvard.edu/saguaro/glossary.
57 David Halpern, The Hidden Wealth of Nations (Boston: Polity, 2009).
58 See the Expanding College Opportunities Project, a low-cost intervention for high-achieving, low-income students, in Caroline Hoxby and Sarah Turner, "Expanding College Opportunities," Education Next 13, no. 4 (2013), http://educationnext.org/expanding-college-opportunities. See also a College Board project designed to expand access to scholarship opportunities earlier in high school to change students' trajectories and help inform their decisions about pursuing college in, "College Board Announces Major Expansion in Access to Scholarships for the Millions of Students Who Take the PSAT/NMSQT®," press release, January 29, 2015, https://www.collegeboard.org/releases/2015/college-board-announces-expansion-scholarships-students-taking-psat-nmsqt.
59 Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Social Capital, Saguaro Seminar: Civic Engagement in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School, accessed September 10, 2015, http://www.hks.harvard.edu/saguaro/faqs.htm.
60 Robert Putnam, Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000); Putnam, Our Kids.
61 This section draws on the work of Robert Putnam and Charles Murray looking at the stratification of social capital by education and skills.
62 2012 Voter Turnout Report, Bipartisan Policy Center, November 8, 2012, http://bipartisanpolicy.org/library/2012-voter-turnout/.
63 U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, November 2012, http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/socdemo/voting/publications/p20/2012/tables.html.
64 Mike Maciag, "Voter Turnout Plummeting in Local Elections," Governing the States and Localities, October 2014, http://www.governing.com/topics/politics/gov-voter-turnout-municipal-elections.html.
65 Richard J. Coley and Andrew Sum, Fault Lines in Our Democracy (Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service, 2012), http://www.ets.org/s/research/19386/.
66 Robert D. Putnam, Carl B. Frederick, and Kaisa Snellman, Growing Class Gaps in Social Connectedness among American Youth, Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Saguaro Seminar: Civic Engagement in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School, August 8, 2012), http://www.hks.harvard.edu/saguaro/research/SaguaroReport_DivergingSocialConnectedness_20120808.pdf.
67 Jean M. Twenge, W. Keith Campbell, and Nathan T. Carter, "Declines in Trust in Others and Confidence in Institutions among American Adults and Late Adolescents, 1972-2012," Psychological Science, doi:10.1177/0956797614545133.
68 Authors' calculations based on General Social Survey data on trust by educational attainment, 1972–2014.
69 Murray, Coming Apart. Statistics from the Pew Research Center show that in 1950, 92 percent of 35- to 39-year-olds without a college degree had ever married; in 2012 that was the case for only 73 percent of this group. (Note that because of the increase in college graduation rates, the characteristics of those without a college degree have changed.) Richard Fry, New Census Data Show More Americans Are Tying the Knot, But Mostly It's the College-Educated, Fact Tank, Pew Research Center, February 6, 2014, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/02/06/new-census-data-show-more-americans-are-tying-the-knot-but-mostly-its-the-college-educated/.
70 Richard Fry and D'Vera Cohn, "Living Together: The Economics of Cohabitation," Social & Demographic Trends, Pew Research Center, June 27, 2011, http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2011/06/27/living-together-the-economics-of-cohabitation/.
72 Family Structure: Indicators on Children and Youth, Child Trends Data Bank, March 2015, http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=family-structure.
73 Authors' calculations based on figures in United States Census Bureau, Years of School Completed by People 25 Years and Over, by Age and Sex: Selection Years 1940 to 2014, CPS Historical Time Series Tables, Table A-1, http://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/education/data/cps/historical/index.html.
74 Most Popular College Degrees for Men and Women, CollegeAtlas.org, June 1, 2015, http://www.collegeatlas.org/top-degrees-by-gender.html.
75 The Rise of Women: Seven Charts Showing Women's Rapid Gains in Educational Achievement (New York: Russell Sage Foundation, February 21, 2013), http://www.russellsage.org/blog/rise-women-seven-charts-showing-womens-rapid-gains-educational-achievement.
76 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Women in the Labor Force: A Databook, BLS Reports, Report 1052, May 2014, http://www.bls.gov/opub/reports/cps/women-in-the-labor-force-a-databook-2014.pdf.
77 Wendy Wang, Record Share of Wives Are More Educated than Their Husbands, Fact Tank, Pew Research Center, February 12, 2014, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/02/12/record-share-of-wives-are-more-educated-than-their-husbands/.
78 Rich Morin, "New Academic Study Links Rising Income Inequality to ‘Assortative Mating,' " Fact Tank, Pew Research Center, January 29, 2014, http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2014/01/29/new-academic-study-links-rising-income-inequality-to-assortive-mating/.
79 Reardon, "Widening Academic-Achievement Gap."