Workforce Readiness and 21st Century Skills
A body of literature has demonstrated the importance of cognitive and noncognitive skills in the workforce. ETS has initiated numerous research projects and activities targeting workforce and workforce readiness issues, collaborating with the business community, educational institutions and nonprofit organizations.
To learn more about our work in this area, visit Job Readiness and 21st Century Skills Initiative or check out this selection of recent ETS-authored or co-authored publications.
The following is a sample of our work in this area of research:
Development of an Evidence-Based Reading Fluency Program for Adult Literacy Learners
J. R. Shore, J. P. Sabatini, J. Lentini, S. Holtzman, & A. McNeil (2015)
Reading Psychology, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 86–104
This article describes an evidence-based adult Guided Repeated Reading program developed for low-literate adult learners to enhance their fluency training. The article also addresses outcomes and future implications of the program’s implementation. View citation record.
Examining the WorkFORCE™ Assessment for Job Fit and Core Capabilities of FACETS™
B. Naemi, J. Seybert, S. Robbins, & P. Kyllonen (2014)
ETS Research Report No. RR-14-32
This report introduces the WorkFORCE™ Assessment for Job Fit. The report provides an overview of the assessment, beginning with detailing evidence-based practices for personality measurement and modeling its relationship to workplace outcomes. The report concludes with recommendations on the use of this capability. View citation record.
Identifying the Most Important 21st Century Workforce Competencies: An Analysis of the Occupational Information Network (O*NET)
J. Burrus, T. Jackson, N. Xi, & J. Steinberg (2013)
ETS Research Report No. RR-13-21
The authors conducted an analysis of the Occupational Information Network (O*Net) database, a large job analysis operated and maintained by the U.S. Department of Labor. They specifically analyzed ratings of the importance of abilities, work styles, skills, and knowledge to succeed in one’s occupation. View citation record.
Soft Skills for the Workplace
P. C. Kyllonen (2013)
Change, Vol. 45, No. 6, pp. 16–23
This article presents an overview of research conducted on the role of cognitive and noncognitive skills in predicting academic and workforce outcomes. Recently, the predominant belief was that cognitive abilities mattered most. Further research suggests both skillsets play an important role in determining success. View citation record.
Emotional Intelligence Relates to Well-Being: Evidence from the Situational Judgment Test of Emotional Management
J. Burrus, A. Betancourt, S. Holtzman, J. Minsky, C. MacCann, & R. D. Roberts (2012)
Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, Vol. 4, pp. 151–166
This article describes a study that examined whether people high in emotional intelligence have greater well-being than people who were low in emotional intelligence. Learn more on the publisher's website.
Noncognitive Skills in Education: Emerging Research and Applications in a Variety of International Contexts
A. A. Lipnevich & R. D. Roberts (2012)
Learning and Individual Differences, Vol. 22, pp. 173–177
This article is the introduction to a special issue of the journal on the topic of Noncognitive Skills in Education: Emerging Research and Applications in a Variety of International Contexts. The authors of this article were the editors of the special issue. Learn more on the publisher's website.
Strategies for Success in Vocational Education: Time Management is More Important for Part-Time than Full-Time Students
C. MacCann, G. Fogarty, & R. D. Roberts (2012)
Learning and Individual Differences, Vol. 22, pp. 618–623
This article describes a study on the relationship between problem-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidant coping strategies and key outcomes in high school students. The study considered the outcomes of academic achievement, life satisfaction, positive feelings toward school and negative feelings toward school. Learn more on the publisher's website.
Emotional Intelligence 101
G. Matthews, J. Zeidner, & R. D. Roberts (2011)
This book provides a science-based introduction to the topic of Emotional Intelligence, including a discussion of the possible applications of research in this area. Learn more on the publisher's website.
Factorial Versus Typological Model: A Comparison of Methods for Personality Data
M. Von Davier, B. Naemi, & R. D. Roberts (2012)
Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspectives, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 185–208
This article explores the distinction between typological and factorial latent variables in personality theory. It discusses two studies involving application of rigorous methodological tools for the identification of types. Learn more on the publisher's website.
New Perspectives on Faking in Personality Assessment
Editors: M. Ziegler, C. MacCann, & R. D. Roberts (2011)
Publisher: Oxford University Press
This edited volume presents different viewpoints on response distortion in assessment. The contributors consider the definition of “faking,” the possible reasons for it, and the types of tests that can be manipulated. Learn more on the publisher's website.
For a more comprehensive list of ETS publications, visit Workforce Readiness and 21st Century Skills Initiative.