Creating Advanced Coursework

On-screen: [ETS®. Listening. Learning. Leading.]

Speakers: Michael Nettles, ETS®; Kassie Freeman, African Diaspora Consortium; Patrick Manning, University of Pittsburgh; Delfeayo Marsalis, African Diaspora Consortium

Speaker: Michael Nettles - Good afternoon and welcome to ETS®. It's really a pleasure for me to be able to stand here this afternoon and welcome you to what will be an exciting afternoon, evening, and then tomorrow as well. This is really our soft opening to a conference that we're convening with The Algebra Project and the collaboration with the Education Law Center as well to focus on structuring education for the bottom quartile. By the bottom quartile, we've spent a lot of time working with The Algebra Project over the past several years to come up with a clear definition. We mean by social class and performance. Today and tomorrow we're going to be focusing on that population of people in K-12 education in the country.

Now the start of this conference — we'll be joined by more people tomorrow. We're expecting a bit over 100 people altogether, but we sort of invite people to come for what we think they will come and stay for. There are about 100 people we thought would come and stay for a day, and then there were 40 or 50 more who for just this evening we'll call the faithful. (Laughter.) They are the people who are here this evening with us, and some may continue to come in.

We're going to start the afternoon and the conference this afternoon, with Kassie Freeman, Delfeayo Marsalis, and Patrick Manning. Patrick Manning's not on the stage visibly but he is actually on the stage on the phone from the University of Pittsburgh talking about establishing a course that might be the first of several what might be considered advanced courses focusing on African language culture and spirit around the world.

It was about a year and a half ago that Kassie and I and Hank Levin, who's at Teachers College, began talking. We were meeting in Hank's office at Teachers College. Kassie was starting up a new organization which she's calling the African Diaspora Consortium for the time being. She may have decided that it's the permanent name, but I think as it grows it's going to sprout into some other entities. We were talking about her work and her effort and it occurred to us collectively that there were no advanced placement courses in the collection of advanced placement course with an African title. We started thinking about African American history as a course. We have a friend, David, who's working on that issue and talking through The Algebra Project. He couldn't be here this evening because his daughter's getting married tomorrow, so we excused him from this meeting. Then Hank Levin and Kassie and I were talking and Hank said there are more African descendants in Brazil than there are in the United States. There are twice as many, 75 million people. We started thinking about how we arrived here and European, African descendants.

Kassie has done an enormous amount of work recruiting other people, including Patrick Manning and Delfeayo to join the effort. She's made an enormous amount of progress, Patrick leading on the curriculum front on this initiative now as a board that is a local membership. Kassie will tell you more about it. So, the effort has gotten underway. We've talked to the College Board about this and people are pretty excited about it. It's growing in energy.

Without delaying further on this, and possibly I can maybe say something at the end, I'm going to turn this over to Kassie Freeman. Kassie is a friend for I can't tell you how many years. She's been a scholar for much of her life, focusing on talented and gifted at one phase of her career as a higher education scholar at Vanderbilt. Then she was a dean of education at Dillard University of New Orleans. She's worked as a senior administrator vice president at Bowdoin in Maine. She was a president, a provost, and vice president for academic affairs for the only HBCU institution that is a system, and that's the Southern University System, because it has multiple campuses: New Orleans, Shreveport, Baton Rouge. Then, Kassie became the president of Southern University System. She lives right near the French Quarter in New Orleans.

The reason I say — I won't give you her address, but the reason I've placed her there is because as you listen to her and follow this program I want you to sort of think well, yeah, she's connected to somehow the French Quarter or something like that. Part of the reason I say that is because she loves it. She loves where she lives. She loves New Orleans. I think her roots originally are in Atlanta, in Georgia. Without further delay, I want to introduce Kassie Freeman and welcome her and let her talk about her colleagues who will join her in the presentation this afternoon. Thank you. (Applause.)

Speaker: Kassie Freeman - Thank you so very, very much. Michael and I have been great colleagues for a long period of time. It is an honor to be here with all of you today. One, I have to always let you know that certainly I am bringing greetings from all of us who work with the African Diaspora Consortium. We fondly refer to it as ADC. We are a 501(c) 3-approved organization, and I am going to be telling you several things about the incredible work that we have been doing. I can tell you right away that there is no lack of excitement and enthusiasm among any one of us you talk to about this work.

I don't want to start — there are two things I want to do before we get going. One, there are probably several legends out here in the audience, but one we always have to recognize is Bob Moses. I'm just such a huge, huge fan, and we're honored to be a part of this program and to listen to him and his colleagues throughout the rest of the weekend. Thank you very, very much. (Applause.) Dave (inaudible 0:08:34), who's not here, but Dave and I have met in New Orleans and he is the most passionate person I know regarding historically black colleges and universities.

One of the things that you are going to see following our meeting, one of the things I said to Dave — somebody asked me, though, recently about the AP course, the African Diaspora AP course that we're developing. I said to them that this course is really the beginning point. If you stop to think about African American history or Afro-Brazilian history, or if you think about Black British history, there should be some common knowledge as students across all of these countries have about the understanding of the history of our experiences.

In my presentation what I'm going to do is to talk about what I always refer to as our compelling case, not just a case, but compelling case that really talks about the common challenges that African descendants confront across the African diaspora. I'm going to talk some about how we took that compelling case and then aligned our initiatives. We only have three. You would think we'd have more, but there are different parts of the initiatives. We have three initiatives. How we align those initiatives to address the common challenges, and the other pieces of our work I'm going to share with you about the structure of our leadership and how we have, at this point, been able to make early progress, early advancements for our organization at this particular period in time.

Let's see if I can work this correctly now. I think I'm doing pretty well. Our vision is to be just a thought leader, which basically if you break that down is just bringing groups together to interactions and opportunity to discuss and exchange opportunities across the African diaspora. We don't want to — when we say individuals, thought leaders, we are not limiting that to any one type of ethnic group. One of the guiding principles of our work is that we are diverse by every standard. We don't really want to be talking to the choir. We want to make sure that everybody who is interacting with individuals across the African diaspora has some common knowledge, and we want that to be across groups.

Our mission is to impact positively, and that is the next part of the philosophy of our work, is that we are focused on positive outcomes. You won't find us sitting around our meeting table discussing oh, poor us in any particular way. (Inaudible 0:12:14) across the African diaspora is what we intend to use to address some of the issues that we are confronting.

The one thing that defines our work somewhat differently from other groups, because there's a lot of interest right now in the African diaspora, we are focused exclusively on individuals, African descendants, who were historically and culturally dispersed during the trans-Atlantic slave trade. You can see all of the points where slaves were brought or dispersed during the trans-Atlantic slave. You can see it was to South America, Latin America, and that's why people are really still shocked. If you look at the lines, and this is, by the way, sourced from the UN, this map. If you look at the lines you have a sense of where the large populations of slaves were brought. That would give you an indication of the population sizes at this very point. You can see North America, and you can see part in the Caribbean, and then certain European points. We are looking at those groups. They are influenced by several migration periods as well.

Now if you look at — this is the thing, I'm going to tell you this right from the beginning, almost not to believe any of the data that you're going to see here. I know that's terrible to say. I'll tell you why. There is no accurate data, which is one of our compelling points which I'll talk about later. There is no accurate data that defines even the size of the populations. For example, in my list, the graduate students that I have, we have different lists. In my list I have Colombia as the third largest African descendant population. I think right now, and that comes from Afropedia. The state department, too, I believe finds.

Most other people, if you look up data and looked at the 15 largest black populations, which is where we are focusing our attention, 15 largest black populations outside of Africa, then you would find there's generally a switch. You would find Haiti, Dominican Republic, and then Colombia. What we know, the first two are correct. That's what we know. We know that Brazil has by far the largest black population, actually about 100 million, and now the Afro-Brazilian population, as of 2011, became the majority population in Brazil. Then we have the U.S. that is merely at 40 million. When I say merely, because most people when they think about the population size of African descendants or slave population they think that America is larger. It's really Brazil, United States, Colombia, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and down the line. Basically, you will see five at least in my list — you will see a students' list will be different. In my list we have five of the largest African descendant populations outside of Africa are centered in Latin America. We know that.

What we did then was then to pick four, because we know right away we wanted to pilot our initiatives. We didn't want to start with 15 because of cultural differences, the way in which populations define themselves. There are a lot of nuances that we wanted to take into consideration before we continue to increase and take a look at the cases of the compelling cases that we found and the challenges that we found. We started with Brazil, obviously, because it's the largest. We want to give Brazil the kind of respect that it's due in that rightful role as the by far largest population. The next one of course is the U.S. because it's the second largest population, and we want to take a look at the population of African American students here. Then we want to — the United Kingdom, because it's the one where everyone knows it's not a large — it's not at the top of the largest, but because it's European and because Great Britain has a great deal of influence, and still does, around the world, that we wanted to take a look at the black British population.

Then we have the British territory of Bermuda. Okay, okay. It wasn't even on the list. It wasn't even on the list. (Laughter.) Okay, but we have a compelling reason. We wanted to have for sure the Caribbean region included, and they have just such an interesting mix. First of all, it's a British territory, just as I've talked about. It is also the size is small, it's about roughly 80,000–100,000 people, but the mix of black, white populations is quite interesting. It's about a little over 50-something percent African descendant population versus 30-something percent white. We thought that would be an interesting mix to take a look at. We've included the British territory of Bermuda. Let me not forget, the chair of our board, being a (inaudible 0:18:23) organization, we wanted to make sure we right away indicated that, and the chair of our board is the former first black woman president of Bermuda. We knew right away we'd have good access to information there.

Now, these are the numbers. I'm going to go through these pretty quickly because what you will see, what I wanted to show you, is the trend and patterns, and basically that's all that is accurate about the information that we were able to find about the countries. We know that the common challenges, as I mentioned, the most uneducated, the most unemployed, the most in poverty is what you see across every single one of our dispersed populations. That's similar to what you would find here if you put our numbers up against the others. All of it, the economic and education indicators, we're not doing well. We are in what Bob would say is the bottom quartile.

Looking at the unemployment rates, you can see if you look at the black bar that — look at the unemployment for the only two countries where we could find that information. That in Bermuda it was very high and in the U.S. is very high. We're unable to find it, data, in the United Kingdom as well as Brazil. Same thing with poverty. You see the poverty that was at a high. America is actually 24%, 25%, one and four, and (inaudible 0:20:21) the other countries as well. We couldn't find data.

Basically, then, what you see, just in some regard around the numbers that you saw, the challenges are our educational economic educators are not strong. We know we're going to have to address those. Another one of our guiding principles is we're saying our question is why do we need to just keep focusing on one country when there is similarity across all of these countries? What lessons can we learn by looking at all of the countries and learning from those? That's why we call it an exchange, and that's why you heard me say early on that one of our guiding principles is true partnerships. If I didn't say that, I want to emphasize that. This organization is everybody in the poor part of the countries all at the table. We are not going to be sitting at the table saying America does this and not allowing other people to define their own issues and allow us to address common problems.

We have three initiatives. One of them is we recognize, but I'll tell you we don't have the data across any of our countries. America obviously would be the best, I would say, but we wanted to have our research and best practice to address one. I'll go to the Economics of Education research project. That's guided by Hank Levin. I want to read to you what Hank's question is, because I just thought that he raises such an important question, and that is how do we use the gaps in economic and educational outcomes to globalize the struggle and influence social justice? That's the guiding question for his what we call cross-cultural economics study. He will be partnering with individuals in Great Britain and Brazil. We're starting with those three larger sized countries first in terms of their research.

Then we have, of course, the AP course, which we're going to be talking about in a great a little bit more detail, because Pat Manning is on the line and he leads that. Then we have we'll have our inaugural, which will actually be the kickoff or launch of our organization. We will have our inaugural ADC lecture. That's housed and hosted each year at Teachers College Columbia University. Let me say the entirety of the research and best practice initiatives are housed under Ernest Morrell's leadership at the Institute of Urban and Minority — or Institute for Urban and Minority Education at Teachers College Columbia. That's one of the reasons that we started off with early progress, and as I indicated, quite a few achievements or accomplishments. We started with this particular initiative. We have also our student study exchange, and I'll just tell you about this and it will come up a little bit more, but it's housed at Xavier University. Then, the thing that gets everybody so excited is our artist network exchange. We're using the art as a vehicle to engage our students. It's a connecting point for different cultures around the world. Everybody's really excited about that, and that brings Delfeayo to us, but we'll talk about him in a little bit.

You can see our courses as I indicated are housed at Teachers College under Ernest Morrell's leadership. You can see that a little bit about the College Board gave us approval and it happened exactly — I'm surprised Michael remembered — it happened exactly like Michael said. Hank, Mike, and I came to a meeting, and when we came back actually, Michael was the one to go to the College Board and to raise this as a possibility. To be honest we were almost shocked ourselves. We thought of this as a gift that we have the opportunity to develop this AP capstone course. It's the first time, as Michael talked about, that we have had the opportunity to talk, develop such a course. By the way it's a piece that holds all — it's another piece, as well as the arts, that holds all of our pieces together.

This is our (inaudible 0:25:49). That's coming up in the spring. I will just tell you a little bit about this. In this role I have to admit I'm really excited a lot, because you get to talk to people at every level. When I mean great excitement, there's British Parliament members, British black Parliament members you get the chance to talk to. We might even have one of those as our speakers. We're not going to say yet. You all will be invited. We would expect you would come.

The other thing is we want to influence the field. We want to influence the scholarship around African diaspora a lot more in a different way. We want to broaden it. By that we mean that we want it to include the dispersed population a lot more. Compared to the International Education Society gave us approval to develop African diaspora (inaudible 0:26:43). We envision ourselves, with your great support, of establishing these (inaudible 0:26:49) and some other major educational associations.

The students that exchanged, I'll just tell you briefly, it's a cohort model and it's keeping students together from all of the countries for short-term experiences. Highly intense with elements of the African diaspora course, highly intense with the artistic engagements that our artists will have the pleasure of setting up in different countries. Delfeayo gets excited about that. Xavier, we are so excited. Xavier is a housing that initiative and we have Howard University as another HBCU that is included. We will have black British students and we will have Afro-Brazilian students and others. We stole that quote from Ernest (inaudible 0:27:50) just to honor him.

Here, the artists, as I said, it's the most exciting piece. I won't say more because Delfeayo is going to talk to us about the way his work has always influenced the field. It's influenced education. It's had the students highly engaged, so we'll talk about that later. We have three artists. Wendell Pierce, who is our theatrical art. Then, of course, we have Delfeayo, and everybody knows his music so he really gets to be the star, because when people think of the arts they really think of music. He's been so gracious to us every step along the way, so I appreciate that. Then I do have to tell you, though, as an aside, third time a charm. He ignored me three times and then I had to get back with him. Katrina Andry is our visual artist. The focus of her work, she does (inaudible 0:28:55), which is very complicated to do and she does that around stereotyping, so we're excited about that.

This is just how all of our pieces hold together. The course runs through all of our work. The cohort model. Group projects that our artists have to do, as well as our students, it's not easy work. We really want that to be intense and community engaging. This is what makes it work. Again, the early success of our work is because of our phenomenal board. You see and know many of the U.S. ones, but our Board Chair, as I told you, is a former president of Bermuda.

On the other side, at the bottom, Dr. Vicente is the only black — most have been white — now the only black president and a president of the only historically black campus in Brazil. Beside him is Dr. Verges, from France, who does Creole slavery history, and she is highly regarded throughout the country. If you would read some of the notes that they write back, saying how honored they are to be a part of the work, it's just amazing. She combines visual arts, her interest in visual arts, around slavery and has curated an art exhibit for the Louvre in Paris. She's in the U.S. now, I think, doing some speaking at Harvard and some other places. We're very, very fortunate (inaudible 0:30:48). Again we intentionalized; we have youth and diversity. That's part of the work that we do, because we want to influence everybody who has worked with the African diaspora.

The planning advisory committee is really what we call the worker bee. You'll see some people like Michael Nettles who's the vice-chairman of our board, so he's working across the planning and advisory committees. We started out meeting almost every month. We have representation from each of our countries there, and you can get an indication of where we were planning to move to, our work, as we explore these four pilot countries. Great Britain is represented; you'll see William Ackah from Great Britain, and Paolo da Silva who also is an Afro-Brazilian. Then, Dr. Aurora Vergara is in Colombia. We obviously think that Colombia has to be the next one that we think is the third largest.

We end always with our mission and our vision. I was only supposed to talk 15 minutes. I think I went over time, didn't I? I hope not so much. Let me just end what I have to say, with the whole notion around the bottom quartile is, as I said from the beginning, these are students, these are similar experiences across all African descendant students across countries across the African diaspora. It really makes a lot of sense to begin to think about ways, allowing countries to come together to think about ways to address these common challenges.

Those are the kinds of questions that with the curriculum, the pedagogical issues that Ernest Morrell and Pat Manning are looking at. That's what they have included in our course. I said to them the other day just imagine what it would be if that students across had some common knowledge about their experiences, so that this course that we have been spending tremendous time thinking about and planning under Pat's leadership really provides just a different kind of opportunity to have engaged students in different sorts of ways, not even to mention the work that we have with our artists and the ways in which we are going to engage them through the arts. You'll get some sense of the way Delfeayo already has done that.

I want to next bring to the mic, since he's not here, but he is so — this is what I mean by excitement and enthusiasm, who gives so generously of their time. Dr. Pat Manning, who with each one of these envisions I searched out. They just couldn't say no. Pat Manning — Michael, of course, directed and guided along me, as well as Hank Levin, that we had to have in order to have the highest level of credibility we needed to have some people who had high level expertise around the African diaspora. The first thing I did was just try to search out who those individuals were, and Pat Manning kept coming up every time out. He's an endowed professor at Pittsburgh. He has a book on the African diaspora, and it is phenomenal. I highly recommend. It came out in 2009. The one other great thing about all the people with whom we work is we don't have eagles around our table. I like to always refer to it as our table. We don't have eagles. Everybody, our graduate students, everybody who comes together has a voice and everybody pays attention. No one does it, I think, more than Pat Manning.

The last thing I'll say about him before he comes — oh, and the other thing that caught our attention is that he's extraordinarily busy because he's president elect of the American Historical Association. In spite of that, he gives so much of his time and attention to this. I asked him, Pat, what do you want me to say to people about why you're so passionate about this? He told me that this, it ties all of his interests — his personal, his professional interests — all of his expertise together. That's how he has come to be very interested in this work and has given so much of his time and attention to it. So with that I will — Pat, are you ready?

Speaker (remote): Patrick Manning - I am ready.

Speaker: Kassie Freeman - All right. Thank you so very, very much. I hope I didn't take too much of your time. (Applause.)

On screen: [American Diaspora. Multiple Voices. An AP Capstone Seminar Proposal to College Board and ETS®.]
Speaker (remote): Patrick Manning - Thank you, Kassie. Jon Rochkind is going to move to the next set of slides. I've put numbers on the slides and will call them out as he moves them, and we'll see if we can make the logistics work out. Thanks so much to ETS® for hosting this event. Good afternoon to all of you. My greetings especially to Bob Moses and colleagues in The Algebra Project. It's very important work, and glad to see it continuing and advancing.

Thank you, Kassie, for that nice summary of the reason why this work means so much to me. It does indeed pull together all of the scholarly and social concerns that have motivated me. I'm pleased to be able to make this short presentation. This is a presentation of a proposed African diaspora course. Here we are with the group that's presenting it. There's Kassie, our leader. I can't tell you how much it means to have her leading the group. There's myself at the University of Pittsburgh, and Ernest Morrell at Teachers College at Columbia University. He and I have together pulled together the curriculum and pedagogy for what we are to present you. As Kassie has indicated, there is a great deal more to the consortium than this, and it's the interaction of the whole group that's given shape to this curriculum.

Number three, please. This is a concise statement of the priorities of the course. First we've identified three themes, trying to boil it down to terms that we can return to regularly: imperialism, resistance, and cultural practice. Now, each of these terms contains a great deal. Imperialism is not just the empire itself; it's corporations and their influence, it's migrations, it's the process of enslavement and, for that matter, emancipation. Then there's resistance, and resistance is political resistance but it's also social resistance and the development of social structures in African and African diaspora communities over the last several centuries. Cultural practice, by that we mean expressive culture, such as music and dance and drama and film, but also societal culture and, really, science and knowledge, or for that matter, political theory. Those are the themes that we'll come to in what's hopefully an organized way.

The terrain is that we explore, first of all, the diaspora in the Americas; second, the African continent; and third, Eurasia. There are populations of African descendants in Europe and many parts of Asia, but especially the southwestern peninsula. The timeframe of the course is the last 600 years divided into six periods. [0:40:04] We've identified a range of topics. Just to list them in general society, government, culture including knowledge, health and environment, movement and interconnections. These are the topics we'll address. Many images by the way, if we can just go back for a second. This one on the left is I love color, (inaudible 0:40:32) by Jerry (inaudible 0:40:34) from Congo, and on the right is Romare Bearden's She-Ba. Romare Bearden spends some of his time in Pittsburgh. Now slide four.

This is the most complicated of the slides. I apologize for that. It did seem necessary to get the whole structure of the course where you can take a look at it, and in case there's time for it, questions we can come back to look at it. The structure overall is that of the AP capstone course. It's our details. It's a yearlong course. The fall semester is the first six units, then where we go through the curriculum or the course week by week. The spring semester is a month on the team project for the group. Then almost two months in which students work on their individual essays, and then that's followed up by the exam.

The parts of the six columns there that really come out of the capstone course are the quests, the big questions, the third over. These are five different questions that are given in the curriculum, and we've chosen one or two of them for each of the units in the course. They are listed there concisely. Then there's a set of skills that are emphasized within the curriculum. We have decided which of those to emphasize in each of the six sections. The course units are — well, we begin with two weeks spending looking at the African diaspora and African continent today, and then go back and do chronologically periods from 1400 up to the present. The themes are listed there. You'll see they're pretty much the three themes that we listed a slide or so ago.

Then the pedagogical ideas are in the next to last column. These are the one that Ernest and I have picked out with details to go with each of them. They're intended to fit with the skills. The assessment technique is intended to fit with the pedagogy. I can imagine you would have lots of questions, but let me give just a little bit more example about the first one or two units of the course.

We decided at the beginning of the class the students should begin by exploring the whole African diaspora today, rather than start a historical course at the beginning, but to give the students a chance to look at their contemporaries around the world, and to do so especially through web reports. There'll be teams of students exploring whatever they can find about Africa, Eurasia, and the Americas, and beginning with group work. In the second week, continuing that approach where students are looking at what'll be the most unfamiliar material on the encounters amongst mostly people in Africa, but also in the Americas for 1400 and 1600. They will address peer evaluation there.

Peer evaluation is tough. You have to learn how to give constructive criticism and how to hear constructive criticism. What we decided is that while the critical reading and critical thinking skills, these are really the core skills. These are the one that traditionally move people ahead or not, but we wanted to work on those really hard but only once the students had developed experience in working with each other, experience in giving and taking criticism, and developed their voices. We'll see how that goes. That's a look at that slide.

Let's move on to slide five. Just to emphasize, the wide range of territory and many regions that are to be addressed. In the new world diaspora there we are in North America, the Caribbean, spanning South America and Brazil. The population of African descendent in that whole area adds up to 150 million people. Then, in Eurasia there's Europe, there's North Africa, where the populations descended from enslaved people south of the Sahara. Asia again, especially in the Arabian Peninsula, and that's 50 million people. If we look at the African continent it's not just one big continent. There are several quite distinct regions labeled normally as north, west, central, southern Africa, east Africa, and northeast. The population for that continent is a billion people, close to one-sixth of the human population. We want to address all of these regions. We can't do them all at once, but we do try to make it so that students will be looking regularly at each of the different regions and thinking of their interconnections.

Let's go to slide six. The resources for the course are ample. This is something where people may have some concern, but I really want to offer reassurance. The historical resources on Africa and on communities in the African diaspora are immense. There's a huge amount that has been written and archived and studied and evaluated, especially over the last 60 years. The problem for us is selecting out of that the materials that we'll use in the course. I have to be frank. This is going to be one of our really difficult tasks, selecting materials that are at the right reading level, that show the links that we want to show, that are written in ways that connect to one another so that students can get some intensive coherence out of the material. Again, reassurance that there are numerous and varied texts that have been written by black authors in English and French and Spanish and Portuguese and Arabic and (inaudible 0:47:22), Swahili that we can draw on through the whole course.

In addition, we want to go beyond just textual study and focus on multimedia. To emphasize music, visual art, drama, dress, and film. Part of the point is that these are just an alternative to text, but another point is the importance of popular culture really in the modern world as a whole, and then to emphasize the particular importance of communities of Africa and the diaspora in developing and reinventing and propagating the popular culture that we live with today. Michael Jackson really belongs there, and (inaudible 0:48:11), the Moroccan musician who's there as well. In addition, we hope students will draw on their own family and community resources, and to emphasize we want them to learn how to use Internet sources.

As for the teachers of the course, we have got plenty of experienced and skilled teachers to work with. Their problem will be that they've never taught a course of this breadth. They will need to go through a thorough program of professional development on a curriculum and pedagogy for the course. As long as they spend the time, and the directors of the course spend the time in preparation, I think there's no doubt that the course can be well taught. Again, we want to emphasize the importance of multiple voices. There's just too much material in this course for us to have an authorized story that everyone must memorize. The point is it's an opportunity for each student, each classroom to pick out part of it that they want to emphasize and trust them to work hard at doing a good job in making sense of the selection that they've made.

Let's go to slide seven. The audience, of course, is it's a college level course for high school students. We hope to focus especially on students at the tenth grade level. The point is that if students can take this course and do well in the course, they'll have two more years left in high school with which to take perhaps the AP research course which follows it as well as the capstone or to take other AP courses. We see the course as a potentially important gateway.

We do expect the students to be, as I've said here, intelligent, experienced, and articulate. We know that they'll be short on skills and short on confidence in many cases, but not short on brains and not short of experience of all sorts that they can bring to bear. The course, as it's submitted and assuming that it's approved, will be open to all school communities that make their selections on what courses to propose for AP capstone. In addition, I want to say that we and ADC hope to be able to select certain schools that we would work with rather closely in the teaching of the course.

Now slide eight. For the actual class session, a reminder that each of the unit we want to address at least some part of the Americas and Africa and Eurasia, and get a growing sense of the linkage of these different parts of the world. Furthermore, for each unit of the course spends part of its time on overall set of linkages for the whole unit. For example, in the 19th century we can talk about emancipation as a process struggling against the expanding slavery, but nonetheless emancipation ultimately won out, but it's a story that includes every part in the African diaspora, and sometimes with remarkably common timing. The emphasis on multiple voices involves not just speaking up the multiple voices, but with kind of learning how to combine them. Learning when to have debates and when to see they're just different dimensions of the same point. Then a steady emphasis on building skills and confidence in using those skills.

Next is assessments, and we think the capstone course is fit with assessment at each unit. We do want to have regular assessments, especially in order to provide the students with feedback. Peer assessment, both to the point of both giving and receiving the assessment, can be really helpful in this. Of course at the end of the course there is the standard final exam, and our job — and those directing the course — would be to prepare the students for doing well on that exam.

Let's move to the next one. Just supposing that we get through the first year of the course, what happens next? It will be open to revision by schools that have taught it and want to take it in different directions, but also those of us who have done the work of directing it the first time will have further thoughts and hope to further devise, develop it, and (inaudible 0:53:07), and maintain the conversations with College Board and ETS®.

There we are. I have just one footnote to offer, so if we go to the next slide. This is just a reminder through this picture of Nobel Laureates that the level of knowledge and the achievement coming out of the African diaspora in the last 40, 50 years has been remarkable. These are some of the models that we hope our students will pick. Also, there's a quiz on this screen. That is to see how many of you know which West Indian country has two Nobel Laureates portrayed. There we are. That's what I wanted to present. There's one more slide and just a couple of pictures. Thank you very much for the chance to present this.


Speaker: Kassie Freeman - Thank you, Pat. I know you'll stay on, so as we have questions at the end you'll be able to address those. The last person, so we have — you saw our three initiatives, and the AP course comes out of our research and best practices, as I indicated. Then, we have the exciting artist piece that actually will weave itself — you heard Pat talk some about where it finds itself in the AP course, but it will weave itself throughout all of the work that we do, because as you will see from Delfeayo's presentation, it really stimulates and engages students. Now I have to say a little bit about him before he comes up. Yeah, I tried three times to be in touch with him. I have to keep reminding him of that. (Laughter.) He finally agreed, okay, meet me at Dooky Chase, so over fried chicken —

Speaker: Delfeayo Marsalis - Good fried chicken.

Speaker: Kassie Freeman - Very good fried chicken, I was able to — I started to engage him some about the work that we were interested in. Not to my surprise because of his intellect, having been himself educated at Berkeley School (inaudible 0:55:38) and master's at University of Louisville. And I also knew about the work that he had done within the school system. He was ideal. We knew from the beginning it was going to be, as the saying goes, one of those acclaimed Marsalis' to work with us, but Delfeayo was our choice right from the beginning because of his phenomenal work. He's a phenomenal trombonist, a producer, composer, educator. What surprised me, I was busy talking, talking, as you can see I constantly do, and he was looking like can you get to the point. Artists or educators have this kind of (inaudible 0:56:26). In the middle of what I was trying to say, he captured better than any person ever utilize understanding the roles of the arts and how it engages students. I was blown away.

Of course, then I had to keep getting with him oh, Delfeayo, we need you to help us with this. He'll think about it. Then he was in Brazil and then he was back. Finally, we were able to capture him. Again over at Dooky Chase eating fried chicken. I am so honored. I asked to have — before he comes to do his presentation, I asked to show his — he did an interview with NBC leading up to — it was following or leading up to Katrina. You can see how he understands very deeply the connection between the African diaspora and art.

Lastly let me say this, and Michael can attest to this, Jon of course was like — we were talking about oh, we're doing our presentation, he was like oh, okay. Well finally when Delfeayo's name was brought to the conversation, oh, I've never seen so much excitement. Thank you, and Jon has been very helpful, as well as (inaudible 0:58:02). Before we show that video and then following that Delfeayo would come, I wanted to indicate that I really wanted to, we really wanted to make sure we sincerely thank the College Board for all their continuing support. Michael Nettles and his entire ETS® team for allowing us to present here today. I wanted to just say that. Steve Cotton (sp? 0:58:32) at the College Board has been beyond awesome. I think Pat would attest to that.

[Start video playing.]

Speaker: Delfeayo Marsalis - You don't want to leave that kind of vibe before the storm. The storm just brought the reality. Hundreds of millions of dollars came into the city and left. The people that it was designed for to help didn't receive it. That's the American way. That's just what happens. Thinking about New Orleans, folks and I think why (inaudible 0:59:12) come to New Orleans is that it's a survival city. The thing that it really taught us here is that we've got to handle the business.

One thing I'll say about my parents, they prepared us, all of us, for that. My mother, she said when you move out, you're not moving back in. More New Orleans people realize that the cavalry is not going to come. You've got to take care of your own. It's good and vibrant here in New Orleans. The concern that we have as jazz musicians is that it's more geared toward kind of a pop or funk sound. You hear a lot of what the brass bands are playing, and it's really killing. It's funky and it's got soul. The cats rehearse all day. It's rich; it's a lot of music going on. Some of us have to kind of take it away from the party sound, away from only that sound and say we still got to have some meat and potatoes, we still got to have some vegetables. Everything can't be dessert all the time.

You know, the trombone kind of picked me, I always say. We find in jazz that a lot of times the instrument mirrors a personality. The trombone is the person with the most responsibility in the band, and that's why I kind of gravitated toward being a producer also, because you have to know what's going on at all times. The trumpet's job is only to play the melody. They can kind of have a single vision. The saxophone, the clarinet, their job there is to either argue with the trumpet or to agree and play something harmonious. The trombone comes along with their argument and says hey, man, everything is going to be cool.

A lot of guys did flee, but a lot of guys came back. There were individuals who realized that they were able to not only receive different treatment in other cities, but they were able to be compensated well. There are a number of guys who did not come back, and you can't blame them. If you have a job that's going to afford you a better living situation and more financial security, take it. I would say for sure a lot of guys came back. Now we're looking to help out the younger generation of musicians so that they can keep the music going forward.

Here in America there's always a struggle between the Africans and the Europeans. Thankfully, the reason why people love New Orleans so much is that we have maintained more African traditions than anyone, or any other city, I should say. That's why the people are so warm and welcoming. That comes straight from Africa. I would say what we really need to do is to embrace more of the African culture and understand that it's about community, it's about love, it's about a love for life, it's about joy. That's why there is that joy to them. That's why New Orleans music cats are playing in the street. If you go to Africa, it makes sense. That's where that comes from. I'd say the main thing that we have to do is to maintain those African traditions which give us our identity and which are important.

[End video playing.]


Speaker: Delfeayo Marsalis - I love working with kids. I have a younger brother who has autism. He had it when it wasn't as bold. Born in 1970. Nobody knew what it was. I'm always reminded of a fellow who lived across the street from us named Jack. We lived in the hood. We lived 329 Webster Street. You can Google it. Tiny house close to the levy in Kenner, Louisiana. We never really could cross the street because there was guys were gangsters. Jack, he was just one of them guys. You just knew. When he was out it wasn't about anything good.

One day Jack says, "Where your little brother at?" "He's inside. My momma, she doesn't let him out." He said, "Yeah, the retarded one." I said, "He's not retarded; he has autism." He said, "Yeah, whatever. If that was my little brother, I'd put him on the back of my bicycle and ride him all over town and let him see as much as he could see." I often think about Jack didn't make it past 25 or 30, I'm sure. I think about the kind of humanity this man has, but in his eyes he only had limited options. He dealt with it the best way that he could. I often think about that sense of humanity.

When I work with kids, no matter what the situation, we want to get to that level of humanity that we all possess. We're becoming less and less interested in it, if it's the brutality of the police, of ISIS, or the mass shootings. It's really, to me, it comes back to that European idea of colonization and destruction. I'm not saying everybody in Africa were saints. It's not a question of that. The love and the humanity and the sense of, if you go to Africa — if you haven't been, go to Africa. The people just have something that's something that you can't describe. When you're around people where material goods really don't matter. [1:05:02] It's not like they're saying well, I'm driving this Mercedes, but I don't have to. It's like when it really doesn't matter, then it changes you. It changes your perspective on things.

My kids that I work with in New Orleans, I'll keep it fairly brief. They were singing the national anthem at the Saints game. I've worked with them for a long time. I insist on discipline, and they're way out of their league singing this national anthem. It's got harmonies that they're not familiar with. We worked really hard. They worked really hard. I want to just play you a little bit of that. We just had rehearsal. You can kind of hear it.

[Plays a musical clip.]

We ran through that on a Sunday, but the people were like man, where do you find these kids? You must audition. I said we don't audition. We accept whoever walks through the doors. I always tell them I'm not impressed by an abundance of privilege, and I'm not impressed by a lack of privilege. There's no excuses. No matter where you come from, you have to deal with what the truth of the matter is. I founded a jazz orchestra. I founded the Uptown Music Theater to teach kids dramatic arts in New Orleans in 2000.


In 2007 I played with the big band. We played jazz for some students, and it was really the opposite of what jazz is supposed to be. Everything was in a minor key. None of these kids were checking it out. It was a Christmas concert. You can imagine all the Christmas songs were in minor keys. The kids were like, I could just look at it and see man, it's kind of strange. It's like they had any opinion one way or the other. I decided the next year, I said no, no. I started the Uptown Jazz Orchestra the next year. I said that's it.

We've been together since 2008, and this year I decided — in fact a month ago — that we're going to go to the schools, because in New Orleans if you're waiting for the money, you're waiting for folks, it's not going to happen. I told, and all the guys in my band, they showed up. They said it's not about the money. We just want to contribute. What I realized is that it's important for our kids to learn and to know that there are other things out there other than popular culture. Some of the people would say you've got to meet the kids where they are and we need to wear jeans. I said we certainly don't need to do that. I'm not meeting any kid anywhere. They've got to meet me or get back behind.

Here's a little bit we played them some Mingus, Charles Mingus, which is fairly complicated. I wish you guys could see this, but anybody could see the kids are grooving.

[Plays music clip.]

We bringing the funk, too. (Laughter.) You know what I mean? We not playing like it's a play along record or nothing. We introduced them to Charles Mingus and also to some Duke Ellington. When it's popping like that, you know? These kids, man, I'm talking about 200 kids, and we've got the pictures which of course we can't access. Just get to the pictures of the kids.

Oh, here we go. Uptown Music Theater, here we go. We started (inaudible 1:09:26) school. Coming in and playing for a lot of kids. Let's go forward. We don't have a lot of time. I'll give you the — bring you to the musicals. I write musicals with a bunch of big words the kids don't know, harmony that they can't sing, but they work on it. We've gone to the nursing homes and the Children's Hospital. We did a tale of the old west. No redemption there. Mingus really, what you going to do? Swinging with the cool school that was used by Children's Hospital of New Orleans as a form of music therapy. This was one of the schools we attended, Sylvanie Williams, and that's the principal, she takes care of the business. [1:10:04] That's the band.

This was — so many great stories. I've got to tell you this story, though. That's me in the middle, and I've got a picture of Harriet Tubman. I did Harriet Tubman at — there's a school where my daughter attends and the parents got together and they said this school is supposed to be a great school. It's a charter school, but they don't acknowledge Black History Month, so they said we want you to write plays about black folks for this school. I said it's no problem. I will do it provided they don't show the plays in the month of February. They said all right, we'll do that.

I decided I was going to do Harriet Tubman. I cast a white girl, a little short white girl, to play the role of Harriet Tubman because I think when the parents see this little white girl come on and she says, "I'm Harriet Tubman and I've been working all my life, working for free, and now I'm working on freedom," I think they would see it a little different than if they got the black girl. I said well yeah, of course. That's why we brought you all here, to work. Of course. Unfortunately, one of the darker skinned parents really — she never told me nothing while we were doing the play, but after the play, boy, she read me the riot act. She missed the whole point. She thought that I didn't think that the dark girl was beautiful enough and I wanted to get the Hollywood rendition of beauty. I said, "Ma'am, you really missed the point."

Go back. Can you go back to that? Children's Hospital did a big story on me in their magazine. Oh no. The girl, I called the girl's mother who I cast as Harriet Tubman and I said, "If you're not comfortable with your daughter playing this role I understand." It was email. She wrote back, "Oh, it's fine. I trust you 100%. Whatever you think is fine." We go through the play. At the end of the play all the kids hold up these pictures of Harriet Tubman. The girl's mother says to one of the parents, "I didn't know Harriet Tubman was black." (Laughter.) True story.

Now, two weeks later this woman is at the Children's Hospital. I'm on the cover of the Children's Hospital thing, the book. I'm on the cover, which I guess I must have looked different, so she didn't know it was me. She opened up the article. She sees this picture of Harriet Tubman. She's like, wait a minute. Then she's like, that's Delfeayo. Had her daughter not played Harriet Tubman and had she not seen the picture there, not only would she not have known that Harriet Tubman was black, she would not have seen me in this article either.

We can flip through. You get the idea. Kids, they sing and dance. This is it. That looks pretty much like me. This kid here on the left, he was just a terror. He was cutting up. The way this picture happened — the other kids were cool. The cameraman, I don't know what the cameraman was doing, so this kid he kept aggravating me, grabbing my glasses. I said, "Man, do you want me to beat you down right here?" He looked at me and said, "What? You can't say that." I told the cameraman, I said, "Let me know when you're ready. Give me the countdown." The cameraman said three, two — when he got to two, I yanked this boy's arm — one — and the kid looked up at me. (Laughter.)

The main thing for us, though, is to bring what we do to the kids. It's sophisticated, it's intellectual, but I never use these small words with these kids. I talk above their level and I let them know, because I look back, my dad used to bring me to things that I had no level of interest in, and as I look back I said wow, I knew that that existed. I knew that there was intellectual conversations between my dad and the professor John Scott who was a great artist. I didn't know what it was or what they were talking about. That's what we try to do for the kids. Next one. Next one.

That's our Uptown Jazz Orchestra. We're swinging. You come to New Orleans, you come to Snug Harbor, just tell them you're my guest. It won't be a problem. This was what's really great was the way the kids were responding. These girls were dancing and they snapping their fingers, and the kids just they love the idea. They love it doesn't matter how complicated it is; as long as it's swinging, they cool with it. Go to the next one. We work with the bigger kids, too, the older kids. We go to high schools. The high school students, we challenge the high school students. High school students today don't know who Duke Ellington was. [1:15:00] Or Count Basie. They just have no understanding of — maybe Harriet Tubman. They don't know who Marcus Garvey was. We're challenging these students to learn more about their history.

Next. Look at this. Next. It's just we're at the school. Next. Okay. I guess that's it, huh? We're going to challenge the students, much like my parents challenged — and they're still challenging us, actually. I think that's the key, is to always be challenged and to try to challenge the younger than you and smack them upside their head.


Speaker: Michael Nettles - Thank you all very much. This evening we have also, in addition to this event in this room, Delfeayo has agreed to play for us. (Applause.) We're going to do that in the Brodsky Gallery. (Inaudible 1:16:19.) We've got a second (inaudible 1:16:21).

Speaker: Delfeayo Marsalis - Oh, you want a second. We weren't prepared. We worked on a piece, an African kind of inspired music, but we can (inaudible 1:16:28), too.

Speaker: Michael Nettles - We'll just march you down to the gallery.

Speaker: Delfeayo Marsalis - We'll play something for you guys to march. We'll march. That's cool. That's no problem.

Speaker: Michael Nettles - Following that we have another exciting event with some of my colleagues at ETS® joining together with The Algebra Project curriculum developers in an exciting venture that we launched here. Bob Moses was a visiting professor at Princeton University about five or six years ago now. Now I can't remember. It's been about that long, right, Bob? That's how we met. Eddie (inaudible 1:17:10) introduced us. Ed is head of the African American studies program.

We really got to like each other quite a bit, Bob and I. I spent a lot of time listening to Bob. He's a vegetarian, so we used to try to find a good place in Princeton where he could get happy without fried chicken. (Laughter.) He started talking about the assessments that ETS® develops. He was complimentary about ETS® and its work, but he was also a constructive critic about what we might do more of to represent people who were in the bottom quartile.

We expanded the conversation to people who are experts in testing assessment at ETS®. The leading people at ETS® were listening. This is a testing company, so we have a lot of people doing this. People got pretty interested in talking to Bob, and they had quite a bit of experience with population that he was talking about through previous projects. One of our leading scientists here at ETS®, Randy Bennett. Randy, can you just stand up a second? Randy is going to moderate and lead the session this evening over in the barn after the music. He's got some of our other senior colleagues who are just outstanding leaders of assessment development here at ETS®, Jeff Haberstroh is here.

Bob spent time talking to them about was developing assessments for the bottom quartile. They were listening and started talking a language that got even beyond some of the people who don't know assessment very well. We're going to be able to listen to a project that is underway now to develop some assessments around The Algebra Project curriculum. This is in its very early stages. It's in the pilot phase. Nothing has been administered. You're going to hear a little bit about that, and then people who actually — David Henderson and Greg Budzban — who have worked to develop the curriculum format. I can talk more about this, but then we would miss Delfeayo playing. I don't want us to do that before he has to go off to the train station. Let's hurry up and do a fast second line down to the Brodsky Gallery. People who know where it is, please lead us and then we'll talk some more down there. [1:20:00] We'll have a reception.


On-screen: [ETS®. Listening. Learning. Leading.]

End of Creating Advanced Coursework video.

Video duration:  1:20:05