The TOEFL® Research Insight Series is a set of publications that present important TOEFL research in an everyday, easy-to-understand format. The purpose of this series is to communicate the strong base of research and development underlying the TOEFL test and to demonstrate our strong, continued commitment to research.
These reports are intended for all institutions and English teachers who use TOEFL test scores.
Vol. 1: TOEFL iBT® Test Framework and Test Development
This volume provides a broad overview of the purpose, structure, contents, development, scoring and item review processes of the TOEFL iBT® test, the world's most widely respected English-language assessment.
Vol. 2: TOEFL Research
This volume introduces readers to how TOEFL® research is conducted both by ETS research staff and externally by the global academic community through the TOEFL COE research program. Also included are accessible summaries of TOEFL research that has already been published in the areas of test fairness and automated scoring.
Vol. 3: Reliability and Comparability of TOEFL iBT Scores
This volume provides an introduction for nonexperts to the key assessment concept of reliability, describing areas of practice that ETS uses to ensure that TOEFL iBT scores are reliable and comparable across forms.
Vol. 4: Validity Evidence Supporting the Interpretation and Use of TOEFL iBT Scores
This volume introduces the central notion of score validity and presents the validity argument for the TOEFL iBT test, including summaries of research investigating key test claims.
Vol. 5: Information for Score Users, Teachers and Learners
This volume presents critical information for TOEFL iBT stakeholders, including appropriate score use guidelines, different options for institutions receiving TOEFL iBT scores, and descriptions of a variety of services and materials that ETS makes available to assist score users. Free and paid resources available to teachers and learners preparing for the TOEFL iBT test are also introduced.
Vol. 6: TOEFL Program History
This volume presents the history of the TOEFL program, tracing its origins in the 1960s, its evolution through multiple iterations and technological innovations, and finally the expanding TOEFL Family of Assessments (including the TOEFL Paper-based Test, TOEFL ITP, TOEFL Junior® and TOEFL Primary® tests).
Vol. 7: TOEFL Junior Framework and Test Development
This volume provides a broad overview of the purpose, structure, contents, development, scoring and item review processes of the TOEFL Junior tests. The TOEFL Junior tests are part of the TOEFL Family of Assessments and intended for students ages 11 and above.
Vol. 8: TOEFL Primary® Framework and Test Development
This volume provides a broad overview of the purpose, structure, contents, development, scoring and item review processes of the TOEFL Primary tests. The TOEFL Primary tests are part of the TOEFL Family of Assessments and intended for students ages 8 and above.
Vol. 9: Guidelines for Setting Useful Score Requirements for the TOEFL iBT Test
This volume is intended to help score users set reasonable and useful cut scores with available TOEFL iBT test resources to facilitate decisions about the admission of international student applicants. Building on the information about the use and interpretation of TOEFL iBT test scores in Volume 5: Information for Score Users, Teachers and Learners, this volume focuses on topics related to score requirements.
Vol. 10: Using TOEFL iBT Test Scores for Selecting International Teaching Assistants
This volume proposes approaches that can be taken to establish, monitor and evaluate score requirements on the TOEFL iBT test to facilitate the screening and selection of international teaching assistants (ITAs). We discuss the language skills measured by the TOEFL iBT test and how they relate to the language skills needed by ITAs. The volume concludes with a review of the ways in which TOEFL iBT test scores may be used to support ITA screening decisions and shares practical recommendations for setting cut scores and suggestions for evaluating their efficacy.