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TOEFL® Family Research Program

Advancing the field of English-language learning and assessment

Select a topic below to learn more about the TOEFL® Family Research Program.

Reliability and Validity

The TOEFL research program ensures test score reliability and validity by following established guidelines for developing and implementing educational measurements. It also conducts research on claims and inferences based on TOEFL test scores.

Investigating the effects of prompt characteristics on the comparability of TOEFL iBT® integrated writing tasks

Examines how the characteristics of questions on the TOEFL iBT integrated Read-Listen-Write tasks affect test-taker performance. 

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Effects of printed option sets on listening item performance among young English-as-a-Foreign-Language learners

Compares test-taker performances on the multiple-choice listening items of the TOEFL Primary® test.  

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Speaking proficiency of young language students: A discourse-analytic study

Examines the characteristics of young language students' spoken responses to the Picture Narration task and one Listen-Speak task of the TOEFL Junior® Speaking test. 

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An investigation of the effect of task type on the discourse produced by students at various score levels in the TOEFL iBT® writing test

Compares the characteristics of test-taker responses to TOEFL iBT independent and integrated writing tasks.  

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Is writing performance related to keyboard type? An investigation from examinees' perspectives on the TOEFL iBT

Recaps a study that found keyboard type had little impact on TOEFL iBT test performance.  

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Stakeholders' beliefs about the TOEFL iBT® test as a measure of academic language ability

Explores the perceptions students, teachers and administrators have of TOEFL iBT test content.  

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From one to multiple accents on a test of L2 listening comprehension

Examines the effect of different varieties of native accents and accent strength on listening comprehension.  

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Shaping a score: Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in integrated writing performances

Reports on an analysis of 480 TOEFL iBT written responses and corresponding scores on two TOEFL iBT writing tasks.  

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Screener tests need validation too: Weighing an argument for test use against practical concerns

Reports the development of a prototype screener test to place young English learners into TOEFL Primary Reading test levels and outlines the evidence necessary to ensure valid test use.  

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A study of the use of TOEFL iBT® test speaking and listening scores for international teaching assistant screening

Examines the effectiveness of using TOEFL iBT speaking and listening scores to screen international teaching assistants in U.S. universities.  

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