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The Development of Experimental Level of Aspiration Techniques for Group Administration

Ricciuti, Henry N.; Schultz, Douglas G.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
United States Air Force, Aspiration, Attitude Measures, Group Testing, Personality Measures, Test Construction, Test Reliability


The purpose of this research was to determine whether it was feasible to develop group-testing techniques suitable for obtaining experimental level of aspiration measures. Incorporating a number of desired characteristics which grew out of a review of the literature, three experimental level of aspiration techniques were developed and investigated empirically. These techniques yielded reliable derived aspiration scores possessing satisfactory distribution characteristics. Instructions asking for levels of aspiration expressed both as expectations and as goals were used, with neither type of instructions appearing to be clearly superior, although the latter produced higher aspiration scores and greater score dispersion. Aspiration measures derived from the three experimental techniques and from statements concerning regular course examinations showed generally low interrelationships. The results of this research indicate that it is feasible to develop experimental level of aspiration techniques suitable for group administration resembling the more commonly used individual procedures. Group techniques of the sort developed should facilitate research on the various problems that have been attacked in the level of aspiration area, by more economical collection of data on larger numbers of subjects.

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