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Interpreting True Scores From Fallible Scores

Lord, Frederic M.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Raw Scores, Scores, Test Theory, True Scores


This paper was presented at the XVI International Congress of Psychology in Bonn, Germany, in August 1960. The author discusses fundamental problems of disentangling the true picture from the noise introduced by errors of measurement. In addition to describing methods that are being used and improved, he provides some background. There are many areas of scientific inquiry in which the quantitative data available must be or may be considered as containing substantial errors of measurement. In these cases, the scientist is concerned with making inferences about the error-free values or true values that underlie the fallible observed values.

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