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The Role of Memory and Color in Group and Individual Embedded-Figures Measures of Field Independence EFT

Jackson, Douglas N.; Messick, Samuel J.; Myers, Charles T.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
National Institute of Mental Health, Cognitive Tests, Color, Embedded Figures Test, Field Dependence Independence, Group Embedded Figures Test, Group Testing, Individual Testing, Memory, Sex Differences


Three group-administered embedded-figures tests were designed to evaluate the possibility of developing economical and reliable measures of perceptual field-independence. These were administered together with individual and group forms of Witkin's EFT in a factorial design to study the effects of color, memory, and item format. Embedded-figures test performances were also studied in relation to perceptual speed, spatial orientation, and Adjective Preference Scale scores. Within-group correlations between group and individually-administered embedded-figures tests were sufficiently high to warrant the use of the group forms as measures of perceptual field-independence. A comparison of the correlational patterns between sexes indicated greater differentiation in cognitive performances for males than for females.

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