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Personality and Situational Determinants of Judgmental Confidence and Extremity

Kogan, Nathan; Wallach, Michael A.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Anxiety, Decision Making, Personality Traits, Risk, Self Esteem, Student Experience


The present investigation examines the effects of manifest anxiety, prior success-failure experience, and task set on judgmental confidence and extremity. In a sample of 141 male college students, a significant triple interaction was obtained for both confidence and extremity, indicating that success-failure and task sets have a differential impact upon these judgmental variables for subjects low and high in manifest anxiety. The findings provided evidence for the operation of two processes in judgmental behavior, conceptualized as desire-for-certainty and cognitive risk taking. Our conclusions emphasized the multiple determination of judgmental phenomena by personality and situational influences.

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