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Grade Adjustments for Prediction of Academic Performance: A Review

Linn, Robert L.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
RB-65-17, RDR-64-65, No. 18
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
College Board, Admission Criteria, College Admission, Grade Prediction, Measurement Techniques


Several techniques of making grade adjustments are reviewed. Evaluations and comparisons of the various techniques are made in terms of the properties of the various models and on the basis of the empirical results based on the application of these models. Although there are several relatively elegant models available, the empirical results have shown negligible improvement in predictive accuracy due to grade adjustments when (a) the results have been cross-validated, and (b) one or more standardized test variables have been included as predictors.

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