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Cognitive Orientation and Defense Mechanisms

Kreitler, Hans; Kreitler, Shulamith
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Tel Aviv University, Behavioral Science Research, Beliefs, Cognitive Style, Psychological Studies, Self Concept


The purpose of these studies was to determine whether beliefs measured along four cognitive variables--Norms, General Beliefs, Beliefs about Self and Goals--are related to behaviors corresponding to the defense mechanisms of rationalization, denial and projection. Study I reports the construction of a questionnaire of beliefs and the testing of its adequacy in terms of interrelations between the scores, homogeneity, reliability and validity. Study II describes three behavioral measures of defenses, administered after a series of frustrations, and provides data confirming the hypothesis that only scores representing the distributions of beliefs along all cognitive variables, but not each cognitive variable separately nor an overall distribution of beliefs regardless of variables, are predictive of behavior.

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