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A Clarification of Cropley and Maslany's Analysis of the Wallach-Kogan Creativity Tests NICHD

Kogan, Nathan
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Memorandum
Document Type:
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Subject/Key Words:
National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), Cognitive Processes, Creativity Tests, Cropley, A. J., Divergent Thinking, Intelligence Tests, Maslany, G. W., Test Reliability, Test Validity, Wallach, M. A.


This paper re-examines the conclusions of a factor analysis by Cropley and Maslany on the Wallach-Kogan Creativity tests. Wallach and Koga and most of the researchers following them using that test concluded that creativity and intelligence could be differentiated as independent dimensions. Cropley and Maslany, on the other hand, concluded that the Wallach-Kogan tests "measure a stable and internally consistent intellective mode." Evidence for a general factor was obtained even though the highest correlation coefficient between a "creativity" and an "intelligence" test was .20, and the mean coefficient for all such cross-correlations was approximately .07. In the present author's judgment, the ambiguities in the outcomes of the Cropley-Maslany factor analysis derives from a failure to rotate their principal components solution. Results of such rotation using an analytic rotational program, PROMAX, and the correlations between the PROMAX factors, both support a clear statistical separation of the "creativity" and "intelligence" domains, consistent with Wallach's and Kogan's findings and those of the other researchers using their tests.

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