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Studies of Single Samples and Whole Populations

Hall, Charles E.
Publication Year:
Report Number:
ETS Research Bulletin
Document Type:
Page Count:
Subject/Key Words:
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Correlation, Sampling, Statistical Analysis


This paper revives an old statistic, the point biserial correlation, reviews some of the generalizations of it and shows how these correlations are useful for studying the characteristics of observations in single samples or whole populations. The distinctions between analysis of variance techniques and complex point serial correlation analyses are examined in considerable detail. In any practical sense there are few, if any, distinctions between analysis of variance and serial correlation when only one characteristic is involved in only one sample. When there is more than one characteristic or more than one sample or both, the distinction between analysis of variance and serial correlation become great, changing the source of estimates of population variance and of estimates of error variance. (16pp.)

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